## Some applications of linear algebra in spectral graph theory

Document typeMaster thesis

Date2011-11

Rights accessOpen Access

##### Abstract

The application of the theory of matrices and eigenvalues to combinatorics is cer-
tainly not new. In the present work the starting point is a theorem that concerns the
eigenvalues of partitioned matrices. Interlacing yields information on subgraphs of
a graph, and the way such subgraphs are embedded. In particular, one gets bounds
on extremal substructures. Applications of this theorem and of some known matrix
theorems to matrices associated to graphs lead to new results. For instance, some
characterizations of regular partitions, and bounds for some parameters, such as
the independence and chromatic numbers, the diameter, the bandwidth, etc. This
master thesis is a contribution to the area of algebraic graph theory and the study
of some generalizations of regularity in bipartite graphs.
In Chapter 1 we recall some basic concepts and results from graph theory and linear
algebra.
Chapter 2 presents some simple but relevant results on graph spectra concerning
eigenvalue interlacing. Most of the previous results that we use were obtained by
Haemers in [33]. In that work, the author gives bounds for the size of a maximal
(co)clique, the chromatic number, the diameter and the bandwidth in terms of the
eigenvalues of the standard adjacency matrix or the Laplacian matrix. He also nds
some inequalities and regularity results concerning the structure of graphs.
The work initiated by Fiol [26] in this area leads us to Chapter 3. The discussion
goes along the same spirit, but in this case eigenvalue interlacing is used for proving
results about some weight parameters and weight-regular partitions of a graph. In
this master thesis a new observation leads to a greatly simpli ed notation of the
results related with weight-partitions. We nd an upper bound for the weight
independence number in terms of the minimum degree.
Special attention is given to regular bipartite graphs, in fact, in Chapter 4 we
contribute with an algebraic characterization of regularity properties in bipartite
graphs. Our rst approach to regularity in bipartite graphs comes from the study of
its spectrum. We characterize these graphs using eigenvalue interlacing and we pro-
vide an improved bound for biregular graphs inspired in Guo's inequality. We prove
a condition for existence of a k-dominating set in terms of its Laplacian eigenvalues.
In particular, we give an upper bound on the sum of the rst Laplacian eigenvalues
of a k-dominating set and generalize a Guo's result for these structures. In terms
of predistance polynomials, we give a result that can be seen as the biregular coun-
terpart of Ho man's Theorem. Finally, we also provide new characterizations of
bipartite graphs inspired in the notion of distance-regularity.
In Chapter 5 we describe some ideas to work with a result from linear algebra known
as the Rayleigh's principle. We observe that the clue is to make the \right choice"
of the eigenvector that is used in Rayleigh's principle. We can use this method
1
to give a spectral characterization of regular and biregular partitions. Applying
this technique, we also derive an alternative proof for the upper bound of the
independence number obtained by Ho man (Chapter 2, Theorem 1.2).
Finally, in Chapter 6 other related new results and some open problems are pre-
sented.

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