Valorization of natural fibres: extraction and physico-chemical characterization
Tutor / director / avaluadorLallam, M. Abdelaziz
Tipus de documentProjecte/Treball Final de Carrera
Condicions d'accésAccés restringit per decisió de l'autor
The aim of this study is to extract cellulosic fibres from the Esparto grass (Stipa Tenacissima L.) for being used in textile applications. This material is renewable, biodegradable and very ecological. In fact, it requires very little amount of water to grow and neither insecticides nor pesticides are needed. In this work, three methods have been used to extract and obtain the Alfa fibres. These inquiries involve the study of the Alfa undergoing them only to an initial mechanical treatment (α1 fibres); adding to it, a chemical treatment using NaOH 3N (α2 fibres) and, finally, an enzymatic treatment is incorporated to the mechanical and alkali treatments (α3 fibres). The effects of these treatments on the fibres have been studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transformation InfraRed (FTIR), linear density, density, moisture regain, tensile test, water absorption, contact angle and X-ray diffraction. It has been observed that both (α2) and (α3) fibres have promising results, SEM images and FTIR spectra show the elimination level of the non-cellulosic components presents in the stems. Pectinase used in the last extraction have a supplementary cleaning up effect. It was found using X-Ray diffraction that cristallinity index increases after treatments, this effect is due to the partial elimination of the amorphous cellulose and the removal of the non cellulosic material during the treatment. The tensile properties were obtained from single filament tensile test, resulting in values similar to those of natural fibres like Agave or Sisal . It has been observed also that (α2) fibres have a tensile strength and Young modulus higher than which are obtained with (α3) fibres.
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