Numerical simulation and experimental validation of hermetic reciprocating compressors. Integration in vapour compression refrigerating systems
ColaboratorOliva, Asensio; Pérez Segarra, Carlos David; Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya. Departament de Màquines i Motors Tèrmics
Document typeDoctoral thesis
PublisherUniversitat Politècnica de Catalunya
Rights accessOpen Access
The numerical simulation model presented is based on the integration of the fluid conservation equations (continuity, momentum and energy) in the whole compressor domain (compression chamber, valves, manifolds, mufflers, connecting tubes, parallel paths, etc.) using instantaneous local mean values for the different variables. It is interesting to remark how momentum equation has been taken into account in all compressor parts and the possibility to solve parallel paths, resonators, etc. Effective flow areas are evaluated considering multidimensional models based on modal analysis of fluid interaction in the valve. Then, second and third order vibration models of valve are also considered. The possibility to use compound bound has been also implemented.The force balances in the crankshaft connecting rod mechanical system are simultaneously solved at each time-step considered in the thermal and fluid dynamic compressor model. It allows to evaluate the instantaneous compression chamber volume and the different forces in the crankshaft connecting rod mechanical system. Mechanical system forces allows to know important information to predict possibleover-stresses in piston, piston pin, crankshaft, connecting rod, etc.The thermal analysis of the solid elements is based on global energy balances at each macro volume considered (shell, muffler, tubes, cylinder head, crankcase, motor, etc.). Some improvements can be implemented (shell conduction, heat transfer coefficient evaluation, etc.).The resulting governing equations (fluid flow, valve dynamics, conduction heat transfer in solids, etc.) are discretized by means of a fully implicit control volume formulation. The complete set of algebraic equations are coupled using the segregated he complete set of algebraic equations are coupled using the segregated pressure based algorithm Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure-Linked Equations(SIMPLEC) extended to compressible flow. Second and third time order schemes have been implemented for the transient terms.An extensive hermetic reciprocating compressor experimental validation has been presented and the experimental know-how acquired has been highlighted. Furthermore, two commercial hermetic reciprocating compressor have been instrumented in detail to obtain the thermal temperatures map and the pressure fluid evolutions along compressor for different working conditions. It is interesting to remark as a novelty, the use of very small absolute pressure transducers, instead of the standard relative transducers. They allow to know instantaneous absolute pressure inside compressor chamber, without the necessity of measurement an absolute pressure outside the compression chamber (as is usual in this kind of experimental works). The global comparative results have allowed to check the possibilities of the numerical simulation presented above and its accuracy compared with experimental data. After that, this work show the capabilities offered by the simulation presented and its final objective, a better understanding of the thermal and fluid dynamic compressor behaviour to improve the design of these equipments.Then, the objective has been to review and present different physically meaningful parameters that characterize the reciprocating compressor behaviour (volumetric efficiency, isentropic efficiency, heat transfer efficiency, mechanical, electrical and heat losses, Coefficient of Performance, etc.), their influence detachment and evolution under different working conditions, with the idea to predict the performance of hermetic reciprocating compressors under different working conditions using the above mentioned non-dimensional parameters.Finally, a parametric study of hermetic reciprocating compressors behaviour has been carried out. Results presented show the influence of different aspects (geometry, valves, motor, working conditions, etc.) in the compressor behaviour. The parametric studies and compressor characterization detachment allows also a better implementation of simplest models of the compressors in the thermal and fluid dynamic numerical simulation of vapour compressor cycles together with the rest of elements.
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