Improvements in direct torque control of induction motors
ColaboratorRomeral Martínez, José Luis; Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya. Departament d'Enginyeria Electrònica
Document typeDoctoral thesis
PublisherUniversitat Politècnica de Catalunya
Rights accessOpen Access
This thesis is mainly devoted to the investigation of speed control methods for three phase cage induction motors with particular emphasis being given to Direct Torque Control (DTC) improved techniques.Classical Direct Torque Control has inherent disadvantages such as: problems during starting resulting from the null states, the compulsory requirement of torque and flux estimators, and torque ripple. In the classical DTC induction motor drive a voltage vector is applied for the entire period, and this causes the stator current and electromagnetic torque exceeds its reference value early during the cycle, causing a high torque ripple. Switching cycles then follows this, in which the zero switching vectors are applied in order to reduce the electromagnetic torque to reference value. This thesis suggests a technique based on applying to the inverter the selected active states just enough time to achieve the torque and flux references values. The rest of the switching period a null state is selected which won't almost change both the torque and the flux. Therefore, a duty ratio has to be determined each switching time. By means of varying the duty ratio between its extreme values (0 up to 1) it is possible to apply any voltage to the motor. The optimum duty ratio per sampling period is a non-linear function of the electromagnetic torque error, the stator flux position and the working point, which is determined by the motor speed and the electromagnetic torque. It is obvious that it is extremely difficult to model such an expression since it is a different non-linear function per working point. Therefore, this thesis is focused on performing a fuzzy-logic-based duty-ratio controller, where the optimum duty ratio is determined every switching period. Additionally, this Fuzzy Controller is adaptive and may be applied to any induction motor.A stator flux reference optimum controller is also designed, which not only helps to achieve a smaller torque ripple, but also reduces the reactive power consumption of the drive taken from the main supply. This is achieved by changing the stator flux reference value with reference being made to the correspondent torque reference value. Therefore, the stator flux reference value chosen is to be just of sufficient value to produce the desired torque Simulated results are shown in order to compare the classical DTC and the Fuzzy Logic based DTC.The control algorithms have been implemented on a PC/DSP based board that facilitates the use of parallelism in software design. A 1.5kW, three-phase induction motor drive has been designed and experimental data obtained from it in order to verify the results achieved by simulation.
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