Instrumentation, model identification and control of an experimental irrigation canal
ColaboratorGómez Valentín, Manuel; Rodellar, José; Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya. Institut d'Organització i Control de Sistemes Industrials
Document typeDoctoral thesis
PublisherUniversitat Politècnica de Catalunya
Rights accessOpen Access
This thesis aims to develop control algorithms for irrigation canals in an experimental framework.These water transport systems are difficult to manage and present low efficiencies in practice. As a result, an important percentage of water is lost, maintenance costs increase and water users follow a rigid irrigation schedule.All these problems can be reduced by automating the operation of irrigation canals.In order to fulfil the objectives, a laboratory canal, called Canal PAC-UPC, was equipped and instrumented in parallel with the development of this thesis. In general, the methods and solutions proposed herein were extensively tested in this canal.In a broader context, three main contributions in different irrigation canal control areas are presented.Focusing on gate-discharge measurements, many submerged-discharge calculation methods are tested and compared using Canal PAC-UPC measurement data. It has been found that most of them present errors around ±10%, but there are notable exceptions. Specifically, using classical formulas with a constant 0.611 contraction value give very good results (error<±6%), but when data is available, a very simple calibration formula recently proposed in the literature significantly outperform the rest (error<±3%). As a consequence, the latter is encouragingly proposed as the basis of any gate discharge controller.With respect to irrigation canal modeling, a detailed procedure to obtain data-driven linear irrigation canal models is successfully developed. These models do not use physical parameters of the system, but are constructed from measurement data. In this case, these models are thought to be used in irrigation canal control issues like controller tuning, internal controller model in predictive controllers or simply as fast and simple simulation platforms. Much effort is employed in obtaining an adequate model structure from the linearized Saint-Venant equations, yielding to a mathematical procedure that verifies the existence of an integrator pole in any type of canal working under any hydraulic condition. Time-domain and frequency-domain results demonstrate the accuracy of the resulting models approximating a canal working around a particular operation condition both in simulation and experiment.Regarding to irrigation canal control, two research lines are exploited. First, a new water level control scheme is proposed as an alternative between decentralized and centralized control. It is called Semi-decentralized scheme and aims to resemble the centralized control performance while maintaining an almost decentralized structure. Second, different water level control schemes based on PI control and Predictive control are studied and compared. The simulation and laboratory results show that the response and performance of this new strategy against offtake discharge changes, are almost identical to the ones of the centralized control, outperforming the other tested schemes based on PI control and on Predictive control. In addition, it is verified that schemes based on Predictive control with good controller models can counteract offtake discharge variations with less level deviations and in almost half the time than PI-based schemes.In addition to these three main contributions, many other smaller developments, minor results and practical recommendations for irrigation canal automation are presented throughout this thesis.
- Tesis - TDX-UPC