Capítols de llibre
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/3491
Tue, 17 Oct 2017 11:23:55 GMT2017-10-17T11:23:55ZUsing the Marshall-Olkin extended Zipf distribution in graph generation
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/105744
Using the Marshall-Olkin extended Zipf distribution in graph generation
Duarte López, Ariel; Prat Pérez, Arnau; Pérez Casany, Marta
Being able to generate large synthetic graphs resembling those found in the real world, is of high importance for the design of new graph algorithms and benchmarks. In this paper, we first compare several probability models in terms of goodness-of-fit, when used to model the degree distribution of real graphs. Second, after confirming that the MOEZipf model is the one that gives better fits, we present a method to generate MOEZipf distributions. The method is shown to work well in practice when implemented in a scalable synthetic graph generator.
Fri, 23 Jun 2017 06:39:52 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/2117/1057442017-06-23T06:39:52ZDuarte López, ArielPrat Pérez, ArnauPérez Casany, MartaBeing able to generate large synthetic graphs resembling those found in the real world, is of high importance for the design of new graph algorithms and benchmarks. In this paper, we first compare several probability models in terms of goodness-of-fit, when used to model the degree distribution of real graphs. Second, after confirming that the MOEZipf model is the one that gives better fits, we present a method to generate MOEZipf distributions. The method is shown to work well in practice when implemented in a scalable synthetic graph generator.Ciencia ficción en materiales educativos para la enseñanza de las ciencias y la tecnología
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/104047
Ciencia ficción en materiales educativos para la enseñanza de las ciencias y la tecnología
Hernández Fernández, Antonio
En el presente artículo se revisan sucintamente las posibilidades y capacidades educativas de la ciencia ficción en los libros de texto, y se presentan ejemplos de cómo plantear la ciencia ficción en actividades introductorias a los contenidos curriculares, a la vez que introducir al alumnado en la ciencia ficción. A tal efecto, se muestra como ejemplo el enfoque de algunas actividades, publicadas recientemente para nuevos libros de texto de Enseñanza Secundaria Obligatoria, bajo las directrices de la LOMCE.
Thu, 04 May 2017 10:04:33 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/2117/1040472017-05-04T10:04:33ZHernández Fernández, AntonioEn el presente artículo se revisan sucintamente las posibilidades y capacidades educativas de la ciencia ficción en los libros de texto, y se presentan ejemplos de cómo plantear la ciencia ficción en actividades introductorias a los contenidos curriculares, a la vez que introducir al alumnado en la ciencia ficción. A tal efecto, se muestra como ejemplo el enfoque de algunas actividades, publicadas recientemente para nuevos libros de texto de Enseñanza Secundaria Obligatoria, bajo las directrices de la LOMCE.Learning probability distributions generated by finite-state machines
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/100347
Learning probability distributions generated by finite-state machines
Castro Rabal, Jorge; Gavaldà Mestre, Ricard
We review methods for inference of probability distributions generated by probabilistic automata and related models for sequence generation. We focus on methods that can be proved to learn in the inference
in the limit and PAC formal models. The methods we review are state merging and state splitting methods for probabilistic deterministic automata and the recently developed spectral method for nondeterministic probabilistic automata. In both cases, we derive them from a high-level algorithm described in terms of the Hankel matrix of the distribution to be learned, given as an oracle, and then describe how to adapt that algorithm to account for the error introduced by a finite sample.
Tue, 31 Jan 2017 09:07:39 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/2117/1003472017-01-31T09:07:39ZCastro Rabal, JorgeGavaldà Mestre, RicardWe review methods for inference of probability distributions generated by probabilistic automata and related models for sequence generation. We focus on methods that can be proved to learn in the inference
in the limit and PAC formal models. The methods we review are state merging and state splitting methods for probabilistic deterministic automata and the recently developed spectral method for nondeterministic probabilistic automata. In both cases, we derive them from a high-level algorithm described in terms of the Hankel matrix of the distribution to be learned, given as an oracle, and then describe how to adapt that algorithm to account for the error introduced by a finite sample.Fast calculation of entropy with Zhang's estimator
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/100157
Fast calculation of entropy with Zhang's estimator
Lozano Bojados, Antoni; Casas Fernández, Bernardino; Bentz, Chris; Ferrer Cancho, Ramon
Entropy is a fundamental property of a repertoire. Here, we present an efficient algorithm to estimate the entropy of types with the help of Zhang’s estimator. The algorithm takes advantage of the fact that the number of different frequencies in a text is in general much smaller than the number of types. We justify the convenience of the algorithm by means of an analysis of the statistical properties of texts from more than 1000 languages. Our work opens up various possibilities for future research.
Fri, 27 Jan 2017 08:06:04 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/2117/1001572017-01-27T08:06:04ZLozano Bojados, AntoniCasas Fernández, BernardinoBentz, ChrisFerrer Cancho, RamonEntropy is a fundamental property of a repertoire. Here, we present an efficient algorithm to estimate the entropy of types with the help of Zhang’s estimator. The algorithm takes advantage of the fact that the number of different frequencies in a text is in general much smaller than the number of types. We justify the convenience of the algorithm by means of an analysis of the statistical properties of texts from more than 1000 languages. Our work opens up various possibilities for future research.Non-crossing dependencies: Least effort, not grammar
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/79345
Non-crossing dependencies: Least effort, not grammar
Ferrer Cancho, Ramon
The use of null hypotheses (in a statistical sense) is common in hard sciences but not in theoretical linguistics. Here the null hypothesis that the low frequency of syntactic dependency crossings is expected by an arbitrary ordering of words is rejected. It is shown that this would require star dependency structures, which are both unrealistic and too restrictive. The hypothesis of the limited resources of the human brain is revisited. Stronger null hypotheses taking into account actual dependency lengths for the likelihood of crossings are presented. Those hypotheses suggests that crossings are likely to reduce when dependencies are shortened. A hypothesis based on pressure to reduce dependency lengths is more parsimonious than a principle of minimization of crossings or a grammatical ban that is totally dissociated from the general and non-linguistic principle of economy.
Tue, 17 Nov 2015 09:45:11 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/2117/793452015-11-17T09:45:11ZFerrer Cancho, RamonThe use of null hypotheses (in a statistical sense) is common in hard sciences but not in theoretical linguistics. Here the null hypothesis that the low frequency of syntactic dependency crossings is expected by an arbitrary ordering of words is rejected. It is shown that this would require star dependency structures, which are both unrealistic and too restrictive. The hypothesis of the limited resources of the human brain is revisited. Stronger null hypotheses taking into account actual dependency lengths for the likelihood of crossings are presented. Those hypotheses suggests that crossings are likely to reduce when dependencies are shortened. A hypothesis based on pressure to reduce dependency lengths is more parsimonious than a principle of minimization of crossings or a grammatical ban that is totally dissociated from the general and non-linguistic principle of economy.Characterization of database dependencies with FCA and pattern structures
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/24652
Characterization of database dependencies with FCA and pattern structures
Baixeries i Juvillà, Jaume; Kaytoue, Mehdi; Napoli, Amedeo
In this review paper, we present some recent results on the characterization of
Functional Dependencies and variations with the formalism
of Pattern Structures and Formal Concept Analysis.
Although these dependencies have been paramount in database theory,
they have been used in different fields:
artificial intelligence and knowledge discovery, among others.
Mon, 10 Nov 2014 16:42:21 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/2117/246522014-11-10T16:42:21ZBaixeries i Juvillà, JaumeKaytoue, MehdiNapoli, AmedeoIn this review paper, we present some recent results on the characterization of
Functional Dependencies and variations with the formalism
of Pattern Structures and Formal Concept Analysis.
Although these dependencies have been paramount in database theory,
they have been used in different fields:
artificial intelligence and knowledge discovery, among others.A logic programming approach to parsing and production in fluid construction grammar
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/17023
A logic programming approach to parsing and production in fluid construction grammar
Sierra Santibáñez, Josefina
This paper presents a Logic Programming approach to parsing and production in Fluid Construction Grammar (FCG). It builds on previous work on the formalisation of FCG in terms of First Order Logic (FOL) concepts, more specifically on the definition of its core inference operations, unification and merge, in terms of FOL unification and search in the space of a particular set of FOL terms called structure arrangements. An implementation of such inference operations based on Logic Programming and Artificial Intelligence techniques such as unification
and heuristic search is outlined.
Mon, 26 Nov 2012 15:45:23 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/2117/170232012-11-26T15:45:23ZSierra Santibáñez, JosefinaThis paper presents a Logic Programming approach to parsing and production in Fluid Construction Grammar (FCG). It builds on previous work on the formalisation of FCG in terms of First Order Logic (FOL) concepts, more specifically on the definition of its core inference operations, unification and merge, in terms of FOL unification and search in the space of a particular set of FOL terms called structure arrangements. An implementation of such inference operations based on Logic Programming and Artificial Intelligence techniques such as unification
and heuristic search is outlined.Experiments on the acquisition of the semantics and grammatical constructions required for communicating propositional logic sentences
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/12999
Experiments on the acquisition of the semantics and grammatical constructions required for communicating propositional logic sentences
Sierra Santibáñez, Josefina; Santibáñez Velilla, Josefina
We describe some experiments which simulate a grounded approach to language acquisition in which a population of autonomous agents without prior linguistic knowledge tries to construct at the same time a conceptualisation of its environment and a shared language. The conceptualisation and language acquisition processes in each individual agent are based on general purpose cognitive capacities, such as categorisation, discrimination, evaluation and induction. The emergence of a shared language in the population results from a process of selforganisation of a particular type of linguistic interaction which takes
place among the agents in the population.
The experiments, which extend previous work by addressing the problem of the acquisition of both the semantics and the syntax of propositional logic, show that at the end of the simulation runs the agents build different conceptualisations and different grammars. However, these conceptualisations
and grammars are compatible enough to guarantee the unambiguous communication of propositional logic sentences.
Furthermore the categorisers of the perceptually grounded and logical categories built during the conceptualisation and language acquisition processes can be used for some forms of common sense reasoning, such as determining whether a sentence is a tautology, a contradiction, a common sense axiom or a merely satisfiable formula.
Mon, 18 Jul 2011 11:36:07 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/2117/129992011-07-18T11:36:07ZSierra Santibáñez, JosefinaSantibáñez Velilla, JosefinaWe describe some experiments which simulate a grounded approach to language acquisition in which a population of autonomous agents without prior linguistic knowledge tries to construct at the same time a conceptualisation of its environment and a shared language. The conceptualisation and language acquisition processes in each individual agent are based on general purpose cognitive capacities, such as categorisation, discrimination, evaluation and induction. The emergence of a shared language in the population results from a process of selforganisation of a particular type of linguistic interaction which takes
place among the agents in the population.
The experiments, which extend previous work by addressing the problem of the acquisition of both the semantics and the syntax of propositional logic, show that at the end of the simulation runs the agents build different conceptualisations and different grammars. However, these conceptualisations
and grammars are compatible enough to guarantee the unambiguous communication of propositional logic sentences.
Furthermore the categorisers of the perceptually grounded and logical categories built during the conceptualisation and language acquisition processes can be used for some forms of common sense reasoning, such as determining whether a sentence is a tautology, a contradiction, a common sense axiom or a merely satisfiable formula.Propositional logic syntax acquisition using induction and self-organisation
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/10847
Propositional logic syntax acquisition using induction and self-organisation
Sierra Santibáñez, Josefina; Santibáñez Velilla, Josefina
This paper addresses the problem of the acquisition of the syntax of propositional logic. An approach based on general purpose cognitive capacities such as invention, adoption, parsing, generation and induction is proposed. Self-organisation principles are used to show how a shared set of preferred lexical entries and grammatical constructions, i.e., a language, can emerge in a population of autonomous agents which do not have any initial linguistic knowledge. Experiments in which a population of autonomous agents constructs a grammar that allows communicating the formulas of a propositional logic language are presented. These experiments extend previous work by considering a larger population and a much larger search space of grammar rules. In particular the agents are allowed to order the expressions associated with the constituents of a logical formula in arbitrary order. Previous work assumed that the expressions associated with the connectives should be placed in the first position of the sentence.
Thu, 30 Dec 2010 09:56:21 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/2117/108472010-12-30T09:56:21ZSierra Santibáñez, JosefinaSantibáñez Velilla, JosefinaThis paper addresses the problem of the acquisition of the syntax of propositional logic. An approach based on general purpose cognitive capacities such as invention, adoption, parsing, generation and induction is proposed. Self-organisation principles are used to show how a shared set of preferred lexical entries and grammatical constructions, i.e., a language, can emerge in a population of autonomous agents which do not have any initial linguistic knowledge. Experiments in which a population of autonomous agents constructs a grammar that allows communicating the formulas of a propositional logic language are presented. These experiments extend previous work by considering a larger population and a much larger search space of grammar rules. In particular the agents are allowed to order the expressions associated with the constituents of a logical formula in arbitrary order. Previous work assumed that the expressions associated with the connectives should be placed in the first position of the sentence.Competencias profesionales para el Grado en Ingeniería Informática
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/6470
Competencias profesionales para el Grado en Ingeniería Informática
Sánchez Carracedo, Fermín; Sancho Samsó, María Ribera; Botella López, Pere; García Almiñana, Jordi; Aluja Banet, Tomàs; Navarro Guerrero, Juan José; Balcázar Navarro, José Luis
Degrees in the EHEA (European Higher Education Area) must be designed based on professional skills, so that when the students finish their studies they become competent professionals in the labour market. In this paper we propose a weighted list of skills for a undergraduate degree in Informatics Engineering, classified into two groups: technical and generic. Technical skills are divided into five different itineraries:computer engineering, computer science, information systems, information technologies and software engineering. Los planes de Estudios del EEES (Espacio
Europeo de Educación Superior) deben ser diseñados a partir de competencias profesionales, de forma que al final de sus estudios el egresado se convierta en un profesional competente en el mercado laboral. En este artículo se propone una lista de competencias ponderada para un título de Grado en Ingeniería Informática clasificadas en dos grupos: transversales y técnicas. Dentro de las técnicas se definen cinco itinerarios distintos: computación, ingeniería de computadores, ingeniería del
software, sistemas de información y tecnologías de la Información.
Thu, 25 Feb 2010 12:43:01 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/2117/64702010-02-25T12:43:01ZSánchez Carracedo, FermínSancho Samsó, María RiberaBotella López, PereGarcía Almiñana, JordiAluja Banet, TomàsNavarro Guerrero, Juan JoséBalcázar Navarro, José LuisDegrees in the EHEA (European Higher Education Area) must be designed based on professional skills, so that when the students finish their studies they become competent professionals in the labour market. In this paper we propose a weighted list of skills for a undergraduate degree in Informatics Engineering, classified into two groups: technical and generic. Technical skills are divided into five different itineraries:computer engineering, computer science, information systems, information technologies and software engineering. Los planes de Estudios del EEES (Espacio
Europeo de Educación Superior) deben ser diseñados a partir de competencias profesionales, de forma que al final de sus estudios el egresado se convierta en un profesional competente en el mercado laboral. En este artículo se propone una lista de competencias ponderada para un título de Grado en Ingeniería Informática clasificadas en dos grupos: transversales y técnicas. Dentro de las técnicas se definen cinco itinerarios distintos: computación, ingeniería de computadores, ingeniería del
software, sistemas de información y tecnologías de la Información.