GAA - Grup d'Astronomia i Astrofísica
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/1136
Sat, 23 Sep 2017 05:52:35 GMT2017-09-23T05:52:35ZFrozen Jacobian multistep iterative method for solving nonlinear IVPs and BVPs
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/107350
Frozen Jacobian multistep iterative method for solving nonlinear IVPs and BVPs
Ahmad, Fayyaz; Shafiq Ur, Rehman; Ullah, Malik Zaka; Aljahdali, Hani Moaiteq; Alshomrani, Ali Saleh; Carrasco, Juan A.; Ahmad, Shamshad
In this paper, we present and illustrate a frozen Jacobian multistep iterative method to solve systems of nonlinear equations associated with initial value problems (IVPs) and boundary value problems (BVPs). We have used Jacobi-Gauss-Lobatto collocation (J-GL-C) methods to discretize the IVPs and BVPs. Frozen Jacobian multistep iterative methods are computationally very efficient. They require only one inversion of the Jacobian in the form of LU-factorization. The LU factors can then be used repeatedly in the multistep part to solve other linear systems. The convergence order of the proposed iterative method is , where is the number of steps. The validity, accuracy, and efficiency of our proposed frozen Jacobian multistep iterative method is illustrated by solving fifteen IVPs and BVPs. It has been observed that, in all the test problems, with one exception in this paper, a single application of the proposed method is enough to obtain highly accurate numerical solutions. In addition, we present a comprehensive comparison of J-GL-C methods on a collection of test problems.
Mon, 04 Sep 2017 10:11:11 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/2117/1073502017-09-04T10:11:11ZAhmad, FayyazShafiq Ur, RehmanUllah, Malik ZakaAljahdali, Hani MoaiteqAlshomrani, Ali SalehCarrasco, Juan A.Ahmad, ShamshadIn this paper, we present and illustrate a frozen Jacobian multistep iterative method to solve systems of nonlinear equations associated with initial value problems (IVPs) and boundary value problems (BVPs). We have used Jacobi-Gauss-Lobatto collocation (J-GL-C) methods to discretize the IVPs and BVPs. Frozen Jacobian multistep iterative methods are computationally very efficient. They require only one inversion of the Jacobian in the form of LU-factorization. The LU factors can then be used repeatedly in the multistep part to solve other linear systems. The convergence order of the proposed iterative method is , where is the number of steps. The validity, accuracy, and efficiency of our proposed frozen Jacobian multistep iterative method is illustrated by solving fifteen IVPs and BVPs. It has been observed that, in all the test problems, with one exception in this paper, a single application of the proposed method is enough to obtain highly accurate numerical solutions. In addition, we present a comprehensive comparison of J-GL-C methods on a collection of test problems.The supersoft X-ray source in V5116 Sagittarii: I. the high resolution spectra
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/105104
The supersoft X-ray source in V5116 Sagittarii: I. the high resolution spectra
Sala Cladellas, Glòria; Ness, Jan-Uwe; Hernanz Carbó, Margarita; Greiner, Jochen
Context. Classical nova explosions occur on the surface of an accreting white dwarf in a binary system. After ejection of a fraction of the envelope and when the expanding shell becomes optically thin to X-rays, a bright source of supersoft X-rays arises, powered by residual H burning on the surface of the white dwarf. While the general picture of the nova event is well established, the details and balance of accretion and ejection processes in classical novae are still full of unknowns. The long-term balance of accreted matter is of special interest for massive accreting white dwarfs, which may be promising supernova Ia progenitor candidates. Nova V5116 Sgr 2005b was observed as a bright and variable supersoft X-ray source by XMM-Newton in March 2007, 610 days after outburst. The light curve showed a periodicity consistent with the orbital period. During one third of the orbit the luminosity was a factor of seven brighter than during the other two thirds of the orbital period.
Aims. In the present work we aim to disentangle the X-ray spectral components of V5116 Sgr and their variability.
Methods. We present the high resolution spectra obtained with XMM-Newton RGS and Chandra LETGS/HRC-S in March and August 2007.
Results. The grating spectrum during the periods of high-flux shows a typical hot white dwarf atmosphere dominated by absorption lines of N VI and N VII. During the low-flux periods, the spectrum is dominated by an atmosphere with the same temperature as during the high-flux period, but with several emission features superimposed. Some of the emission lines are well modeled with an optically thin plasma in collisional equilibrium, rich in C and N, which also explains some excess in the spectra of the high-flux period. No velocity shifts are observed in the absorption lines, with an upper limit set by the spectral resolution of 500 km s-1, consistent with the expectation of a non-expanding atmosphere so late in the evolution of the post-nova.
Fri, 02 Jun 2017 06:35:06 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/2117/1051042017-06-02T06:35:06ZSala Cladellas, GlòriaNess, Jan-UweHernanz Carbó, MargaritaGreiner, JochenContext. Classical nova explosions occur on the surface of an accreting white dwarf in a binary system. After ejection of a fraction of the envelope and when the expanding shell becomes optically thin to X-rays, a bright source of supersoft X-rays arises, powered by residual H burning on the surface of the white dwarf. While the general picture of the nova event is well established, the details and balance of accretion and ejection processes in classical novae are still full of unknowns. The long-term balance of accreted matter is of special interest for massive accreting white dwarfs, which may be promising supernova Ia progenitor candidates. Nova V5116 Sgr 2005b was observed as a bright and variable supersoft X-ray source by XMM-Newton in March 2007, 610 days after outburst. The light curve showed a periodicity consistent with the orbital period. During one third of the orbit the luminosity was a factor of seven brighter than during the other two thirds of the orbital period.
Aims. In the present work we aim to disentangle the X-ray spectral components of V5116 Sgr and their variability.
Methods. We present the high resolution spectra obtained with XMM-Newton RGS and Chandra LETGS/HRC-S in March and August 2007.
Results. The grating spectrum during the periods of high-flux shows a typical hot white dwarf atmosphere dominated by absorption lines of N VI and N VII. During the low-flux periods, the spectrum is dominated by an atmosphere with the same temperature as during the high-flux period, but with several emission features superimposed. Some of the emission lines are well modeled with an optically thin plasma in collisional equilibrium, rich in C and N, which also explains some excess in the spectra of the high-flux period. No velocity shifts are observed in the absorption lines, with an upper limit set by the spectral resolution of 500 km s-1, consistent with the expectation of a non-expanding atmosphere so late in the evolution of the post-nova.Measurement of key resonance states for the 40P(p,g)31S reaction rate, and the production of intermediate-mass elements in nova explosions
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/104927
Measurement of key resonance states for the 40P(p,g)31S reaction rate, and the production of intermediate-mass elements in nova explosions
Kankainen, A; Woods, P.J.; Schatz, H.; Poxon-Pearson, T; Doherty, D.T.; Bader, V.; Baugher, T.; Bazin, D.; Brown, B.A.; Browne, J.; Estrade, A.; Gade, A.; José Pont, Jordi; Kontos, A.; Langer, C.; Lotay, G.; Meisel, Z.; Montes, F.; Noji, S.; Nunes, F.; Perdikakis, G.; Pereira, J.; Recchia, F.; Redpath, T.; Stroberg, R.; Scott, M.; Seweryniak, D.; Stevens, J.; Weisshaar, D.; Wimmer, K.; Zegers, R.
We report the first experimental constraints on spectroscopic factors and strengths of key resonances in the 30P(p, γ)31Sreaction critical for determining the production of intermediate-mass elements up to Ca in nova ejecta. The 30P(d, n)31Sreaction was studied in inverse kinematics using the GRETINA γ-ray array to measure the angle-integrated cross-sections of states above the proton threshold. In general, negative-parity states are found to be most strongly produced but the absolute values of spectroscopic factors are typically an order of magnitude lower than predicted by the shell-model calculations employing WBP Hamiltonian for the negative-parity states. The results clearly indicate the dominance of a single 3/2−resonance state at 196 keV in the region of nova burning T≈0.10–0.17GK, well within the region of interest for nova nucleosynthesis. Hydrodynamic simulations of nova explosions have been performed to demonstrate the effect on the composition of nova ejecta.
Fri, 26 May 2017 12:44:57 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/2117/1049272017-05-26T12:44:57ZKankainen, AWoods, P.J.Schatz, H.Poxon-Pearson, TDoherty, D.T.Bader, V.Baugher, T.Bazin, D.Brown, B.A.Browne, J.Estrade, A.Gade, A.José Pont, JordiKontos, A.Langer, C.Lotay, G.Meisel, Z.Montes, F.Noji, S.Nunes, F.Perdikakis, G.Pereira, J.Recchia, F.Redpath, T.Stroberg, R.Scott, M.Seweryniak, D.Stevens, J.Weisshaar, D.Wimmer, K.Zegers, R.We report the first experimental constraints on spectroscopic factors and strengths of key resonances in the 30P(p, γ)31Sreaction critical for determining the production of intermediate-mass elements up to Ca in nova ejecta. The 30P(d, n)31Sreaction was studied in inverse kinematics using the GRETINA γ-ray array to measure the angle-integrated cross-sections of states above the proton threshold. In general, negative-parity states are found to be most strongly produced but the absolute values of spectroscopic factors are typically an order of magnitude lower than predicted by the shell-model calculations employing WBP Hamiltonian for the negative-parity states. The results clearly indicate the dominance of a single 3/2−resonance state at 196 keV in the region of nova burning T≈0.10–0.17GK, well within the region of interest for nova nucleosynthesis. Hydrodynamic simulations of nova explosions have been performed to demonstrate the effect on the composition of nova ejecta.A Parameterized multi-step Newton method for solving systems of nonlinear equations
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/104811
A Parameterized multi-step Newton method for solving systems of nonlinear equations
Ahmad, Fayyaz; Tohidi, Emran; Carrasco, Juan A.
We construct a novel multi-step iterative method for solving systems of nonlinear equations by introducing a parameter. to generalize the multi-step Newton method while keeping its order of convergence and computational cost. By an appropriate selection of theta, the new method can both have faster convergence and have larger radius of convergence. The new iterative method only requires one Jacobian inversion per iteration, and therefore, can be efficiently implemented using Krylov subspace methods. The new method can be used to solve nonlinear systems of partial differential equations, such as complex generalized Zakharov systems of partial differential equations, by transforming them into systems of nonlinear equations by discretizing approaches in both spatial and temporal independent variables such as, for instance, the Chebyshev pseudo-spectral discretizing method. Quite extensive tests show that the new method can have significantly faster convergence and significantly larger radius of convergence than the multi-step Newton method.
Wed, 24 May 2017 10:09:04 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/2117/1048112017-05-24T10:09:04ZAhmad, FayyazTohidi, EmranCarrasco, Juan A.We construct a novel multi-step iterative method for solving systems of nonlinear equations by introducing a parameter. to generalize the multi-step Newton method while keeping its order of convergence and computational cost. By an appropriate selection of theta, the new method can both have faster convergence and have larger radius of convergence. The new iterative method only requires one Jacobian inversion per iteration, and therefore, can be efficiently implemented using Krylov subspace methods. The new method can be used to solve nonlinear systems of partial differential equations, such as complex generalized Zakharov systems of partial differential equations, by transforming them into systems of nonlinear equations by discretizing approaches in both spatial and temporal independent variables such as, for instance, the Chebyshev pseudo-spectral discretizing method. Quite extensive tests show that the new method can have significantly faster convergence and significantly larger radius of convergence than the multi-step Newton method.Multi-step frozen Jacobian iterative scheme for solving IVPs and BVPs based on higher order Fréchet derivatives
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/104772
Multi-step frozen Jacobian iterative scheme for solving IVPs and BVPs based on higher order Fréchet derivatives
Ilyas, Iqra; Ali, Zulqar; Ahmad, Fayyaz; Ullah, Malik Zaka; Alshomrani, Ali Saleh
A multi-step frozen Jacobian iterative scheme for solving system of nonlinear equations associated with IVPs (initial value problems) and BVPs (boundary value problems) is constructed. The multi-step iterative schemes consist of two parts, namely base method and a multi-step part. The proposed iterative scheme uses higher order Fr ´echet derivatives in the base method part and offers high convergence order (CO) 3s + 1, here s is the number of steps.
The increment in the CO per step is three, and we solve three upper and lower triangles systems per step in the multi-step part. A single inversion of the is not working in latexfrozen Jacobian is required and in fact, we avoid the direct inversion of the frozen Jacobian by computing the LU factors. The LU-factors are utilized in the multi-step part to solve upper and lower triangular systems repeatedly that makes the iterative scheme computationally efficient. We solve a set of IVPs and BVPs to show the validity, accuracy and efficiency of our proposed iterative scheme.
Tue, 23 May 2017 11:55:56 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/2117/1047722017-05-23T11:55:56ZIlyas, IqraAli, ZulqarAhmad, FayyazUllah, Malik ZakaAlshomrani, Ali SalehA multi-step frozen Jacobian iterative scheme for solving system of nonlinear equations associated with IVPs (initial value problems) and BVPs (boundary value problems) is constructed. The multi-step iterative schemes consist of two parts, namely base method and a multi-step part. The proposed iterative scheme uses higher order Fr ´echet derivatives in the base method part and offers high convergence order (CO) 3s + 1, here s is the number of steps.
The increment in the CO per step is three, and we solve three upper and lower triangles systems per step in the multi-step part. A single inversion of the is not working in latexfrozen Jacobian is required and in fact, we avoid the direct inversion of the frozen Jacobian by computing the LU factors. The LU-factors are utilized in the multi-step part to solve upper and lower triangular systems repeatedly that makes the iterative scheme computationally efficient. We solve a set of IVPs and BVPs to show the validity, accuracy and efficiency of our proposed iterative scheme.Orbital periods and component masses of three double white dwarfs
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/104493
Orbital periods and component masses of three double white dwarfs
Rebassa Mansergas, Alberto; Parsons, S. G.; García-Berro Montilla, Enrique; Gaensicke, B. T.; Schreiber, Mathias R.; Rybicka, M.; Koester, D.
The merger of close double white dwarfs (CDWDs) is one of the favourite evolutionary channels for producing Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia). Unfortunately, current theories of the evolution and formation of CDWDs are still poorly constrained and have several serious uncertainties that affect the predicted SN Ia rates. Moreover, current observational constraints on this evolutionary pathway for SN Ia mainly rely on only 17 double-lined and/or eclipsing CDWDs with measured orbital and stellar parameters for both white dwarfs. In this paper, we present the orbital periods and the individual masses of three new double-lined CDWDs, derived using a new method. This method employs mass ratios, the Ha core ratios and spectral model fitting to constrain the masses of the components of the pair. The three CDWDs are WD0028-474 (P-orb = 9.350 +/- 0.007 h, M-1 = 0.60 +/- 0.06 M-circle dot, M-2 = 0.45 +/- 0.04 M-circle dot), HE0410-1137 (P-orb = 12.208 +/- 0.008 h, M-1 = 0.51 +/- 0.04 M-circle dot, M-2 = 0.39 +/- 0.03 M-circle dot) and SDSSJ031813.25-010711.7 (P-orb = 45.908 +/- 0.006 h, among the longest period systems, M-1 = 0.40 +/- 0.05 M-circle dot, M-2 = 0.49 +/- 0.05 M-circle dot). While the three systems studied here will merge in time-scales longer than the Hubble time and are expected to become single massive (greater than or similar to 0.9 M-circle dot) white dwarfs rather than exploding as SN Ia, increasing the small sample of CDWDs with determined stellar parameters is crucial for a better overall understanding of their evolution.
Tue, 16 May 2017 10:37:49 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/2117/1044932017-05-16T10:37:49ZRebassa Mansergas, AlbertoParsons, S. G.García-Berro Montilla, EnriqueGaensicke, B. T.Schreiber, Mathias R.Rybicka, M.Koester, D.The merger of close double white dwarfs (CDWDs) is one of the favourite evolutionary channels for producing Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia). Unfortunately, current theories of the evolution and formation of CDWDs are still poorly constrained and have several serious uncertainties that affect the predicted SN Ia rates. Moreover, current observational constraints on this evolutionary pathway for SN Ia mainly rely on only 17 double-lined and/or eclipsing CDWDs with measured orbital and stellar parameters for both white dwarfs. In this paper, we present the orbital periods and the individual masses of three new double-lined CDWDs, derived using a new method. This method employs mass ratios, the Ha core ratios and spectral model fitting to constrain the masses of the components of the pair. The three CDWDs are WD0028-474 (P-orb = 9.350 +/- 0.007 h, M-1 = 0.60 +/- 0.06 M-circle dot, M-2 = 0.45 +/- 0.04 M-circle dot), HE0410-1137 (P-orb = 12.208 +/- 0.008 h, M-1 = 0.51 +/- 0.04 M-circle dot, M-2 = 0.39 +/- 0.03 M-circle dot) and SDSSJ031813.25-010711.7 (P-orb = 45.908 +/- 0.006 h, among the longest period systems, M-1 = 0.40 +/- 0.05 M-circle dot, M-2 = 0.49 +/- 0.05 M-circle dot). While the three systems studied here will merge in time-scales longer than the Hubble time and are expected to become single massive (greater than or similar to 0.9 M-circle dot) white dwarfs rather than exploding as SN Ia, increasing the small sample of CDWDs with determined stellar parameters is crucial for a better overall understanding of their evolution.A preconditioned iterative method for solving systems of nonlinear equations having unknown multiplicity
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/104328
A preconditioned iterative method for solving systems of nonlinear equations having unknown multiplicity
Ahmad, Fayyaz; Bhutta, Toseef Akhter ; Sohaib, Umar; Ullah, Malik Zaka; Alshomrani, Ali Saleh; Ahmad, Shamshad; Ahmad, Shahid
A modification to an existing iterative method for computing zeros with unknown multiplicities of nonlinear equations or a system of nonlinear equations is presented. We introduce preconditioners to nonlinear equations or a system of nonlinear equations and their corresponding Jacobians. The inclusion of preconditioners provides numerical stability and accuracy. The different selection of preconditioner offers a family of iterative methods. We modified an existing method in a way that we do not alter its inherited quadratic convergence. Numerical simulations confirm the quadratic convergence of the preconditioned iterative method. The influence of preconditioners is clearly reflected in the numerically achieved accuracy of computed solutions.
Thu, 11 May 2017 15:43:34 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/2117/1043282017-05-11T15:43:34ZAhmad, FayyazBhutta, Toseef Akhter Sohaib, UmarUllah, Malik ZakaAlshomrani, Ali SalehAhmad, ShamshadAhmad, ShahidA modification to an existing iterative method for computing zeros with unknown multiplicities of nonlinear equations or a system of nonlinear equations is presented. We introduce preconditioners to nonlinear equations or a system of nonlinear equations and their corresponding Jacobians. The inclusion of preconditioners provides numerical stability and accuracy. The different selection of preconditioner offers a family of iterative methods. We modified an existing method in a way that we do not alter its inherited quadratic convergence. Numerical simulations confirm the quadratic convergence of the preconditioned iterative method. The influence of preconditioners is clearly reflected in the numerically achieved accuracy of computed solutions.Non-extensive statistics to the cosmological lithium problem
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/104261
Non-extensive statistics to the cosmological lithium problem
Hou, S.Q.; He, J.J.; Parikh, Anuj Ramesh
Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) theory predicts the abundances of the light elements D, 3He, 4He, and 7Li produced in the early universe. The primordial abundances of D and 4He inferred from observational data are in good agreement with predictions, however, BBN theory overestimates the primordial 7Li abundance by about a factor of three. This is the so-called
Wed, 10 May 2017 11:04:38 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/2117/1042612017-05-10T11:04:38ZHou, S.Q.He, J.J.Parikh, Anuj RameshBig Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) theory predicts the abundances of the light elements D, 3He, 4He, and 7Li produced in the early universe. The primordial abundances of D and 4He inferred from observational data are in good agreement with predictions, however, BBN theory overestimates the primordial 7Li abundance by about a factor of three. This is the so-calledMagnetic white dwarfs: Observations, theory and future prospects
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/104215
Magnetic white dwarfs: Observations, theory and future prospects
García-Berro Montilla, Enrique; Kilic, Mukremin; Kepler, S.O.
Isolated magnetic white dwarfs have field strengths ranging from 10(3)G to 10(9) G, and constitute an interesting class of objects. The origin of the magnetic field is still the subject of a hot debate. Whether these fields are fossil, hence the remnants of original weak magnetic fields amplified during the course of the evolution of the progenitor of white dwarfs, or on the contrary, are the result of binary interactions or, finally, other physical mechanisms that could produce such large magnetic fields during the evolution of the white dwarf itself, remains to be elucidated. In this work, we review the current status and paradigms of magnetic fields in white dwarfs, from both the theoretical and observational points of view.
Tue, 09 May 2017 07:37:09 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/2117/1042152017-05-09T07:37:09ZGarcía-Berro Montilla, EnriqueKilic, MukreminKepler, S.O.Isolated magnetic white dwarfs have field strengths ranging from 10(3)G to 10(9) G, and constitute an interesting class of objects. The origin of the magnetic field is still the subject of a hot debate. Whether these fields are fossil, hence the remnants of original weak magnetic fields amplified during the course of the evolution of the progenitor of white dwarfs, or on the contrary, are the result of binary interactions or, finally, other physical mechanisms that could produce such large magnetic fields during the evolution of the white dwarf itself, remains to be elucidated. In this work, we review the current status and paradigms of magnetic fields in white dwarfs, from both the theoretical and observational points of view.A common origin of magnetism from planets to white dwarfs
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/104213
A common origin of magnetism from planets to white dwarfs
Isern Vilaboy, Jordi; García-Berro Montilla, Enrique; Kulebi, Baybar; Loren Aguilar, Pablo
Isolated magnetic white dwarfs have field strengths ranging from kilogauss to gigagauss. However, the origin of the magnetic field has not been hitherto elucidated. Whether these fields are fossil, hence the remnants of original weak magnetic fields amplified during the course of the evolution of their progenitor stars, or are the result of binary interactions, or, finally, they are produced by other internal physical mechanisms during the cooling of the white dwarf itself, remains a mystery. At sufficiently low temperatures, white dwarfs crystallize. Upon solidification, phase separation of its main constituents, 12C and 16O, and of the impurities left by previous evolution occurs. This process leads to the formation of a Rayleigh–Taylor unstable liquid mantle on top of a solid core. This convective region, as it occurs in solar system planets like the Earth and Jupiter, can produce a dynamo able to yield magnetic fields of strengths of up to 0.1 MG, thus providing a mechanism that could explain magnetism in single white dwarfs.
Tue, 09 May 2017 07:28:26 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/2117/1042132017-05-09T07:28:26ZIsern Vilaboy, JordiGarcía-Berro Montilla, EnriqueKulebi, BaybarLoren Aguilar, PabloIsolated magnetic white dwarfs have field strengths ranging from kilogauss to gigagauss. However, the origin of the magnetic field has not been hitherto elucidated. Whether these fields are fossil, hence the remnants of original weak magnetic fields amplified during the course of the evolution of their progenitor stars, or are the result of binary interactions, or, finally, they are produced by other internal physical mechanisms during the cooling of the white dwarf itself, remains a mystery. At sufficiently low temperatures, white dwarfs crystallize. Upon solidification, phase separation of its main constituents, 12C and 16O, and of the impurities left by previous evolution occurs. This process leads to the formation of a Rayleigh–Taylor unstable liquid mantle on top of a solid core. This convective region, as it occurs in solar system planets like the Earth and Jupiter, can produce a dynamo able to yield magnetic fields of strengths of up to 0.1 MG, thus providing a mechanism that could explain magnetism in single white dwarfs.