Departament d'Enginyeria Electrònica
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/3935
20160925T17:34:59Z

Predictive control of a backtoback NPC converterbased wind power system
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/90159
Predictive control of a backtoback NPC converterbased wind power system
Calle Prado, Alejandro; Alepuz Menendez, Salvador; Bordonau Farrerons, José; Cortés, Patricio; Rodriguez, Jose
As wind power technology points to increase power ratings, the implementation based on a permanentmagnet synchronous generator (PMSG) with a fullpower converter is expanding its market share. Multilevel converters, as for example, neutralpoint clamped (NPC) converters, are therefore well suited for this application. Predictive current control presents similar dynamic response and reference tracking than other wellestablished control methods, but working at lower switching frequencies, and providing extensive flexibility to apply either online or offline different control laws to the same plant. In this work, the predictive current control is applied to both sides of the backtoback NPC converter connecting a permanentmagnet synchronous wind power generator to the grid. DClink neutralpoint balance is achieved by means of the predictive control algorithm, which considers the redundant switching states of the backtoback NPC converter. Reduced number of commutations, current spectrum control, and compliance with the lowvoltage ridethrough (LVRT) requirement are carried out with the predictive control. The obtained experimental results confirm the suitability of the proposed control approach.
20160923T10:50:51Z
Calle Prado, Alejandro
Alepuz Menendez, Salvador
Bordonau Farrerons, José
Cortés, Patricio
Rodriguez, Jose
As wind power technology points to increase power ratings, the implementation based on a permanentmagnet synchronous generator (PMSG) with a fullpower converter is expanding its market share. Multilevel converters, as for example, neutralpoint clamped (NPC) converters, are therefore well suited for this application. Predictive current control presents similar dynamic response and reference tracking than other wellestablished control methods, but working at lower switching frequencies, and providing extensive flexibility to apply either online or offline different control laws to the same plant. In this work, the predictive current control is applied to both sides of the backtoback NPC converter connecting a permanentmagnet synchronous wind power generator to the grid. DClink neutralpoint balance is achieved by means of the predictive control algorithm, which considers the redundant switching states of the backtoback NPC converter. Reduced number of commutations, current spectrum control, and compliance with the lowvoltage ridethrough (LVRT) requirement are carried out with the predictive control. The obtained experimental results confirm the suitability of the proposed control approach.

Decoupled DCLink capacitor voltage control of DCAC multilevel multileg converters
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/90151
Decoupled DCLink capacitor voltage control of DCAC multilevel multileg converters
Busquets Monge, Sergio; Griñó Cubero, Robert; Nicolás Apruzzese, Joan; Bordonau Farrerons, José
This paper studies the coupling between the capacitor voltage control loops of diodeclamped (or functionally equivalent) multilevel multileg (multiphase) dcac converters. From a complete model of the plant revealing the coupling, a simple approach consisting in multiplying the vector of control commands by a constant matrix is proposed to decouple the control problem and achieve a better controller performance. Simulation and experimental results are presented to prove the superior performance of the proposed decoupled control.
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20160922T16:42:18Z
Busquets Monge, Sergio
Griñó Cubero, Robert
Nicolás Apruzzese, Joan
Bordonau Farrerons, José
This paper studies the coupling between the capacitor voltage control loops of diodeclamped (or functionally equivalent) multilevel multileg (multiphase) dcac converters. From a complete model of the plant revealing the coupling, a simple approach consisting in multiplying the vector of control commands by a constant matrix is proposed to decouple the control problem and achieve a better controller performance. Simulation and experimental results are presented to prove the superior performance of the proposed decoupled control.

Topological analysis of powertrains for refusecollecting vehicles based on real routes – Part II: Hybrid electric powertrain
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/90082
Topological analysis of powertrains for refusecollecting vehicles based on real routes – Part II: Hybrid electric powertrain
Soriano Alfonso, Franciso; Moreno Eguilaz, Juan Manuel; Álvarez Flórez, Jesús Andrés; Riera Colomer, Jordi
In this twopart paper, a topological analysis of powertrains for refusecollecting vehicles (RCVs) based on simulation of different architectures (internal combustion engine, hybrid electric, and hybrid hydraulic) on real routes is proposed. In this second part, three different hybrid electric powertrain architectures are proposed and modeled. These architectures are based on the use of fuel cells, ultracapacitors, and batteries. A calculation engine, which is specifically designed to estimate energy consumption, respecting the original performance as the original internal combustion engine (ICE), is presented and used for simulations and component sizing. Finally, the overall performance of the different architectures (hybrid hydraulic, taken from the first paper part, and hybrid electric, estimated in this second part) and control strategies are summarized in a fuel and energy consumption table. Based on this table, an analysis of the different architecture performance results is carried out. From this analysis, a technological evolution of these vehicles in the medium and long terms is proposed.
20160920T16:08:06Z
Soriano Alfonso, Franciso
Moreno Eguilaz, Juan Manuel
Álvarez Flórez, Jesús Andrés
Riera Colomer, Jordi
In this twopart paper, a topological analysis of powertrains for refusecollecting vehicles (RCVs) based on simulation of different architectures (internal combustion engine, hybrid electric, and hybrid hydraulic) on real routes is proposed. In this second part, three different hybrid electric powertrain architectures are proposed and modeled. These architectures are based on the use of fuel cells, ultracapacitors, and batteries. A calculation engine, which is specifically designed to estimate energy consumption, respecting the original performance as the original internal combustion engine (ICE), is presented and used for simulations and component sizing. Finally, the overall performance of the different architectures (hybrid hydraulic, taken from the first paper part, and hybrid electric, estimated in this second part) and control strategies are summarized in a fuel and energy consumption table. Based on this table, an analysis of the different architecture performance results is carried out. From this analysis, a technological evolution of these vehicles in the medium and long terms is proposed.

Topological analysis of powertrains for refusecollecting vehicles based on real routes – Part I: Hybrid hydraulic powertrain
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/90081
Topological analysis of powertrains for refusecollecting vehicles based on real routes – Part I: Hybrid hydraulic powertrain
Soriano Alfonso, Franciso; Moreno Eguilaz, Juan Manuel; Álvarez Flórez, Jesús Andrés; Riera Colomer, Jordi
In this twopart paper, a topological analysis of powertrains for refusecollecting vehicles (RCVs) based on the simulation of different architectures (internal combustion engine, hybrid electric, and hybrid hydraulic) on real routes is proposed. In this first part, a characterization of a standard route is performed, analyzing the average power consumption and the most frequent working points of an internal combustion engine (ICE) in real routes. This information is used to define alternative powertrain architectures. A hybrid hydraulic powertrain architecture is proposed and modelled. The proposed powertrain model is executed using two different control algorithms, with and without predictive strategies, with data obtained from real routes. A calculation engine (an algorithm which runs the vehicle models on real routes), is presented and used for simulations. This calculation engine has been specifically designed to analyze if the different alternative powertrain delivers the same performance of the original ICE. Finally, the overall performance of the different architectures and control strategies are summarized into a fuel and energy consumption table, which will be used in the second part of this paper to compare with the different architectures based on hybrid electric powertrain. The overall performance of the different architectures indicates that the use of a hybrid hydraulic powertrain with simple control laws can reduce the fuel consumption up to a 14 %.
20160920T15:25:11Z
Soriano Alfonso, Franciso
Moreno Eguilaz, Juan Manuel
Álvarez Flórez, Jesús Andrés
Riera Colomer, Jordi
In this twopart paper, a topological analysis of powertrains for refusecollecting vehicles (RCVs) based on the simulation of different architectures (internal combustion engine, hybrid electric, and hybrid hydraulic) on real routes is proposed. In this first part, a characterization of a standard route is performed, analyzing the average power consumption and the most frequent working points of an internal combustion engine (ICE) in real routes. This information is used to define alternative powertrain architectures. A hybrid hydraulic powertrain architecture is proposed and modelled. The proposed powertrain model is executed using two different control algorithms, with and without predictive strategies, with data obtained from real routes. A calculation engine (an algorithm which runs the vehicle models on real routes), is presented and used for simulations. This calculation engine has been specifically designed to analyze if the different alternative powertrain delivers the same performance of the original ICE. Finally, the overall performance of the different architectures and control strategies are summarized into a fuel and energy consumption table, which will be used in the second part of this paper to compare with the different architectures based on hybrid electric powertrain. The overall performance of the different architectures indicates that the use of a hybrid hydraulic powertrain with simple control laws can reduce the fuel consumption up to a 14 %.

Control en modo deslizante de un inversor trabajando a frecuencia de conmutación fija
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/89820
Control en modo deslizante de un inversor trabajando a frecuencia de conmutación fija
Repecho del Corral, Víctor; Biel Solé, Domingo; Olm Miras, Josep Maria
El presente trabajo propone un método para la regulación de frecuencia en controladores deslizantes trabajando en seguimiento de señales. La técnica incluye un lazo de control adicional con un comparador de histerésis variable. El sistema equivalente de dicho lazo resulta en un modelo discreto con parámetros variantes en el tiempo. La utilización de un término feedforward permite encontrar condiciones de estabilidad del nuevo lazo. La técnica se aplica a un inversor de potencia, que permite validar el sistema de control propuesto y las condiciones de estabilidad deducidas.
20160912T10:43:26Z
Repecho del Corral, Víctor
Biel Solé, Domingo
Olm Miras, Josep Maria
El presente trabajo propone un método para la regulación de frecuencia en controladores deslizantes trabajando en seguimiento de señales. La técnica incluye un lazo de control adicional con un comparador de histerésis variable. El sistema equivalente de dicho lazo resulta en un modelo discreto con parámetros variantes en el tiempo. La utilización de un término feedforward permite encontrar condiciones de estabilidad del nuevo lazo. La técnica se aplica a un inversor de potencia, que permite validar el sistema de control propuesto y las condiciones de estabilidad deducidas.

Implicit ODE solvers with good local error control for the transient analysis of Markov models
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/89791
Implicit ODE solvers with good local error control for the transient analysis of Markov models
Suñé, Víctor; Carrasco, Juan A.
Obtaining the transient probability distribution vector of a continuoustime Markov chain (CTMC) using an implicit ordinary differential equation (ODE) solver tends to be advantageous in terms of runtime computational cost when the product of the maximum output rate of the CTMC and the largest time of interest is large. In this paper, we show that when applied to the transient analysis of CTMCs, many implicit ODE solvers are such that the linear systems involved in their steps can be solved by using iterative methods with strict control of the 1norm of the error. This allows the development of implementations of those ODE solvers for the transient analysis of CTMCs that can be more efficient and more accurate than more standard implementations.
20160909T11:04:28Z
Suñé, Víctor
Carrasco, Juan A.
Obtaining the transient probability distribution vector of a continuoustime Markov chain (CTMC) using an implicit ordinary differential equation (ODE) solver tends to be advantageous in terms of runtime computational cost when the product of the maximum output rate of the CTMC and the largest time of interest is large. In this paper, we show that when applied to the transient analysis of CTMCs, many implicit ODE solvers are such that the linear systems involved in their steps can be solved by using iterative methods with strict control of the 1norm of the error. This allows the development of implementations of those ODE solvers for the transient analysis of CTMCs that can be more efficient and more accurate than more standard implementations.

Different displacement of bioimpedance vector due to Ag/AgCl electrode effect
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/89787
Different displacement of bioimpedance vector due to Ag/AgCl electrode effect
Nescolarde Selva, Lexa Digna; Lukaski, Henry; De Lorenzo, Antonino; de Mateo Silleras, Beatriz; Redondo del Río, Maria Paz; Camina, Alicia
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) is increasingly used in clinical research to assess soft
Q2 tissue hydration. It is known that physical characteristics of electrodes, such as low intrinsic impedance, low electrode/skin contact
impedance and type of gel, affect the reliability of noninvasive bioimpedance assessments. The aim of this study was to determine
the effect of intrinsic impedance of electrode on the bioimpedance vector displacement in RXc graph.
SUBJECTS/METHODS: The intrinsic impedance is measured in nine pregelled disposable Ag/AgCl electrodes usually used for
bioimpedance measures. The BIVA method is performed on 35 healthy volunteers using a 50 kHz phasesensitive bioimpedance
analyzer (BIA 101 Anniversary) with the lowest intrinsic impedance electrode and highest. The individual bioimpedance vector is
plotted on the bivariate normal interval of reference population. The differences in the mean bioimpedance vectors obtained with
each electrode are plotted, with their 95% confidence ellipses, on the dRXc graph. The paired onesample Hotelling's T2
test is used
to compare the differences of the mean bioimpedance vectors.
RESULTS: We found large variability in intrinsic resistance (11–665 O) and reactance (0.25–2.5 O) values of the electrodes analyzed
and significant displacement (Po0.05) of bioimpedance vector positions in healthy adults according to the paired onesample
Hotelling's T2
test.
CONCLUSIONS: A robust study of all physical characteristics of commercial Ag/AgCl electrodes is necessary to reach consensus on
pregelled Ag/AgCl electrodes valid for bioimpedance measurement. This information will enable BIVA users to avoid systemic errors
when performing BIVA assessments, specifically when these measurements are used for clinical interpretations.
20160909T10:19:31Z
Nescolarde Selva, Lexa Digna
Lukaski, Henry
De Lorenzo, Antonino
de Mateo Silleras, Beatriz
Redondo del Río, Maria Paz
Camina, Alicia
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) is increasingly used in clinical research to assess soft
Q2 tissue hydration. It is known that physical characteristics of electrodes, such as low intrinsic impedance, low electrode/skin contact
impedance and type of gel, affect the reliability of noninvasive bioimpedance assessments. The aim of this study was to determine
the effect of intrinsic impedance of electrode on the bioimpedance vector displacement in RXc graph.
SUBJECTS/METHODS: The intrinsic impedance is measured in nine pregelled disposable Ag/AgCl electrodes usually used for
bioimpedance measures. The BIVA method is performed on 35 healthy volunteers using a 50 kHz phasesensitive bioimpedance
analyzer (BIA 101 Anniversary) with the lowest intrinsic impedance electrode and highest. The individual bioimpedance vector is
plotted on the bivariate normal interval of reference population. The differences in the mean bioimpedance vectors obtained with
each electrode are plotted, with their 95% confidence ellipses, on the dRXc graph. The paired onesample Hotelling's T2
test is used
to compare the differences of the mean bioimpedance vectors.
RESULTS: We found large variability in intrinsic resistance (11–665 O) and reactance (0.25–2.5 O) values of the electrodes analyzed
and significant displacement (Po0.05) of bioimpedance vector positions in healthy adults according to the paired onesample
Hotelling's T2
test.
CONCLUSIONS: A robust study of all physical characteristics of commercial Ag/AgCl electrodes is necessary to reach consensus on
pregelled Ag/AgCl electrodes valid for bioimpedance measurement. This information will enable BIVA users to avoid systemic errors
when performing BIVA assessments, specifically when these measurements are used for clinical interpretations.

Robust sequential circuits design technique for low voltage and high noise scenarios
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/89628
Robust sequential circuits design technique for low voltage and high noise scenarios
García Leyva, Lancelot; Rivera Dueñas, Juan; Calomarde Palomino, Antonio; Moll Echeto, Francisco de Borja; Rubio Sola, Jose Antonio
All electronic processing components in future deep nanotechnologies will exhibit high noise level and/
or low S/N ratios because of the extreme voltage reduction and the nearly erratic nature of such devices. Systems
implemented with these devices would exhibit a high probability to fail, causing an unacceptably reduced reliability.
In this paper we introduce an innovative input and output data redundancy principle for sequential block circuits, the
responsible to keep the state of the system, showing its efficiency in front of other robust technique approaches. The methodology is totally different from the Von Neumann approaches, because element are not replicated N times, but
instead, they check the coherence of redundant input data no allowing data propagation in case of discrepancy. This
mechanism does not require voting devices. © 2016 Owned by the authors, published by EDP Sciences.
20160906T12:36:42Z
García Leyva, Lancelot
Rivera Dueñas, Juan
Calomarde Palomino, Antonio
Moll Echeto, Francisco de Borja
Rubio Sola, Jose Antonio
All electronic processing components in future deep nanotechnologies will exhibit high noise level and/
or low S/N ratios because of the extreme voltage reduction and the nearly erratic nature of such devices. Systems
implemented with these devices would exhibit a high probability to fail, causing an unacceptably reduced reliability.
In this paper we introduce an innovative input and output data redundancy principle for sequential block circuits, the
responsible to keep the state of the system, showing its efficiency in front of other robust technique approaches. The methodology is totally different from the Von Neumann approaches, because element are not replicated N times, but
instead, they check the coherence of redundant input data no allowing data propagation in case of discrepancy. This
mechanism does not require voting devices. © 2016 Owned by the authors, published by EDP Sciences.

Operating Principle and Performance Optimization of a ThreeLevel NPC DualActiveBridge DCDC Converter
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/89441
Operating Principle and Performance Optimization of a ThreeLevel NPC DualActiveBridge DCDC Converter
Filbà Martínez, Àlber; Busquets Monge, Sergio; Nicolás Apruzzese, Joan; Bordonau Farrerons, José
© 19822012 IEEE. Aiming to improve the performance features of conventional twolevel dualactivebridge (DAB) converters, this paper presents a threelevel neutralpointclamped (NPC) DAB dcdc converter. A general modulation pattern is initially defined, the dclink capacitor voltage balancing is analyzed in detail, and a proper balancing control is designed. Then, a set of decoupled optimization problems is formulated as a function of the available modulation degrees of freedom to minimize the predominant converter losses. Finally, a simple and practical specific modulation strategy is provided, resembling the optimum solutions. The good performance of the proposed threelevel NPC DAB converter operated with the proposed modulation strategy and voltage balancing control is verified through simulation and experiments. The capacitor voltage balancing can be guaranteed for all operating conditions. In addition, it is concluded that the multilevel topology provides benefits compared with the conventional twolevel DAB converter.
20160901T09:06:19Z
Filbà Martínez, Àlber
Busquets Monge, Sergio
Nicolás Apruzzese, Joan
Bordonau Farrerons, José
© 19822012 IEEE. Aiming to improve the performance features of conventional twolevel dualactivebridge (DAB) converters, this paper presents a threelevel neutralpointclamped (NPC) DAB dcdc converter. A general modulation pattern is initially defined, the dclink capacitor voltage balancing is analyzed in detail, and a proper balancing control is designed. Then, a set of decoupled optimization problems is formulated as a function of the available modulation degrees of freedom to minimize the predominant converter losses. Finally, a simple and practical specific modulation strategy is provided, resembling the optimum solutions. The good performance of the proposed threelevel NPC DAB converter operated with the proposed modulation strategy and voltage balancing control is verified through simulation and experiments. The capacitor voltage balancing can be guaranteed for all operating conditions. In addition, it is concluded that the multilevel topology provides benefits compared with the conventional twolevel DAB converter.

Comparison of two PV array models for the simulation of PV systems using five different algorithms for the parameters identification
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/89279
Comparison of two PV array models for the simulation of PV systems using five different algorithms for the parameters identification
Kichou, Sofiane; Silvestre Bergés, Santiago; Guglielminotti, Letizia; MoraLópez, Llanos; MuñozCerón, Emilio
Simulation is of primal importance in the prediction of the produced power and automatic fault detection in PV gridconnected systems (PVGCS). The accuracy of simulation results depends on the models used for main components of the PV system, especially for the PV module. The present paper compares two PV array models, the fiveparameter model (5PM) and the Sandia Array Performance Model (SAPM). Five different algorithms are used for estimating the unknown parameters of both PV models in order to see how they affect the accuracy of simulations in reproducing the outdoor behavior of three PVGCS. The arrays of the PVGCS are of three different PV module technologies: Crystalline silicon (cSi), amorphous silicon (aSi:H) and micromorph silicon (aSi:H/µcSi:H).
The accuracy of PV module models based on the five algorithms is evaluated by means of the Route Mean Square Error (RMSE) and the Normalized Mean Absolute Error (NMAE), calculated for different weather conditions (clear sky, semicloudy and cloudy days). For both models considered in this study, the best accuracy is obtained from simulations using the estimated values of unknown parameters delivered by the ABC algorithm. Where, the maximum error values of RMSE and NMAE stay below 6.61% and 2.66% respectively.
20160727T14:04:55Z
Kichou, Sofiane
Silvestre Bergés, Santiago
Guglielminotti, Letizia
MoraLópez, Llanos
MuñozCerón, Emilio
Simulation is of primal importance in the prediction of the produced power and automatic fault detection in PV gridconnected systems (PVGCS). The accuracy of simulation results depends on the models used for main components of the PV system, especially for the PV module. The present paper compares two PV array models, the fiveparameter model (5PM) and the Sandia Array Performance Model (SAPM). Five different algorithms are used for estimating the unknown parameters of both PV models in order to see how they affect the accuracy of simulations in reproducing the outdoor behavior of three PVGCS. The arrays of the PVGCS are of three different PV module technologies: Crystalline silicon (cSi), amorphous silicon (aSi:H) and micromorph silicon (aSi:H/µcSi:H).
The accuracy of PV module models based on the five algorithms is evaluated by means of the Route Mean Square Error (RMSE) and the Normalized Mean Absolute Error (NMAE), calculated for different weather conditions (clear sky, semicloudy and cloudy days). For both models considered in this study, the best accuracy is obtained from simulations using the estimated values of unknown parameters delivered by the ABC algorithm. Where, the maximum error values of RMSE and NMAE stay below 6.61% and 2.66% respectively.