Articles de revista
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/3487
2017-04-24T03:37:34ZImmunity and simplicity in relativizations of probabilistic complexity classes
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/103554
Immunity and simplicity in relativizations of probabilistic complexity classes
Balcázar Navarro, José Luis; Russo, David A.
The existence of immune and simple sets in relativizations of the probabilistic polynomial time bounded classes is studied. Some techniques previously used to show similar results for relativizations of P and NP are adapted to the probabilistic classes. Using these results, an exhaustive settling of all possible strong separations among these relativized classes is obtained.; On étudie les relativisations des classes de complexité probabiliste polynômiale. On adapte aux classes probabilistes des techniques déjà utilisées pour établir des résultats similaires pour les relativisations de P et NP. On obtient à partir de ces résultats une classification de toutes les propriétés de séparation forte pour ces classes relativisées.
2017-04-19T14:00:20ZBalcázar Navarro, José LuisRusso, David A.The existence of immune and simple sets in relativizations of the probabilistic polynomial time bounded classes is studied. Some techniques previously used to show similar results for relativizations of P and NP are adapted to the probabilistic classes. Using these results, an exhaustive settling of all possible strong separations among these relativized classes is obtained.
On étudie les relativisations des classes de complexité probabiliste polynômiale. On adapte aux classes probabilistes des techniques déjà utilisées pour établir des résultats similaires pour les relativisations de P et NP. On obtient à partir de ces résultats une classification de toutes les propriétés de séparation forte pour ces classes relativisées.Sparse sets, lowness, and highness
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/103245
Sparse sets, lowness, and highness
Balcázar Navarro, José Luis; Book, R; Schoening, U
We develop the notions of “generalized lowness” for sets in PH (the union of the polynomial-time hierarchy) and of “generalized highness” for arbitrary sets. Also, we develop the notions of “extended lowness” and “extended highness” for arbitrary sets. These notions extend the decomposition of NP into low sets and high sets developed by Schöning [15] and studied by Ko and Schöning [9].
We show that either every sparse set in PH is generalized high or no sparse set in PH is generalized high. Further, either every sparse set is extended high or no sparse set is extended high. In both situations, the former case corresponds to the polynomial-time hierarchy having only finitely many levels while the latter case corresponds to the polynomial-time hierarchy extending infinitely many levels.
2017-04-04T07:57:03ZBalcázar Navarro, José LuisBook, RSchoening, UWe develop the notions of “generalized lowness” for sets in PH (the union of the polynomial-time hierarchy) and of “generalized highness” for arbitrary sets. Also, we develop the notions of “extended lowness” and “extended highness” for arbitrary sets. These notions extend the decomposition of NP into low sets and high sets developed by Schöning [15] and studied by Ko and Schöning [9].
We show that either every sparse set in PH is generalized high or no sparse set in PH is generalized high. Further, either every sparse set is extended high or no sparse set is extended high. In both situations, the former case corresponds to the polynomial-time hierarchy having only finitely many levels while the latter case corresponds to the polynomial-time hierarchy extending infinitely many levels.Acoustic sequences in non-human animals: a tutorial review and prospectus
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/102816
Acoustic sequences in non-human animals: a tutorial review and prospectus
Kershenbaum, Arik; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Roch, Marie A.; Ferrer Cancho, Ramon
Animal acoustic communication often takes the form of complex sequences, made up of multiple distinct acoustic units. Apart from the well-known example of birdsong, other animals such as insects, amphibians, and mammals (including bats, rodents, primates, and cetaceans) also generate complex acoustic sequences. Occasionally, such as with birdsong, the adaptive role of these sequences seems clear (e.g. mate attraction and territorial defence). More often however, researchers have only begun to characterise-let alone understand-the significance and meaning of acoustic sequences. Hypotheses abound, but there is little agreement as to how sequences should be defined and analysed. Our review aims to outline suitable methods for testing these hypotheses, and to describe the major limitations to our current and near-future knowledge on questions of acoustic sequences. This review and prospectus is the result of a collaborative effort between 43 scientists from the fields of animal behaviour, ecology and evolution, signal processing, machine learning, quantitative linguistics, and information theory, who gathered for a 2013 workshop entitled, 'Analysing vocal sequences in animals'. Our goal is to present not just a review of the state of the art, but to propose a methodological framework that summarises what we suggest are the best practices for research in this field, across taxa and across disciplines. We also provide a tutorial-style introduction to some of the most promising algorithmic approaches for analysing sequences. We divide our review into three sections: identifying the distinct units of an acoustic sequence, describing the different ways that information can be contained within a sequence, and analysing the structure of that sequence. Each of these sections is further subdivided to address the key questions and approaches in that area. We propose a uniform, systematic, and comprehensive approach to studying sequences, with the goal of clarifying research terms used in different fields, and facilitating collaboration and comparative studies. Allowing greater interdisciplinary collaboration will facilitate the investigation of many important questions in the evolution of communication and sociality.
2017-03-23T08:55:32ZKershenbaum, ArikBlumstein, Daniel T.Roch, Marie A.Ferrer Cancho, RamonAnimal acoustic communication often takes the form of complex sequences, made up of multiple distinct acoustic units. Apart from the well-known example of birdsong, other animals such as insects, amphibians, and mammals (including bats, rodents, primates, and cetaceans) also generate complex acoustic sequences. Occasionally, such as with birdsong, the adaptive role of these sequences seems clear (e.g. mate attraction and territorial defence). More often however, researchers have only begun to characterise-let alone understand-the significance and meaning of acoustic sequences. Hypotheses abound, but there is little agreement as to how sequences should be defined and analysed. Our review aims to outline suitable methods for testing these hypotheses, and to describe the major limitations to our current and near-future knowledge on questions of acoustic sequences. This review and prospectus is the result of a collaborative effort between 43 scientists from the fields of animal behaviour, ecology and evolution, signal processing, machine learning, quantitative linguistics, and information theory, who gathered for a 2013 workshop entitled, 'Analysing vocal sequences in animals'. Our goal is to present not just a review of the state of the art, but to propose a methodological framework that summarises what we suggest are the best practices for research in this field, across taxa and across disciplines. We also provide a tutorial-style introduction to some of the most promising algorithmic approaches for analysing sequences. We divide our review into three sections: identifying the distinct units of an acoustic sequence, describing the different ways that information can be contained within a sequence, and analysing the structure of that sequence. Each of these sections is further subdivided to address the key questions and approaches in that area. We propose a uniform, systematic, and comprehensive approach to studying sequences, with the goal of clarifying research terms used in different fields, and facilitating collaboration and comparative studies. Allowing greater interdisciplinary collaboration will facilitate the investigation of many important questions in the evolution of communication and sociality.The optimality of attaching unlinked labels to unlinked meanings
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/102539
The optimality of attaching unlinked labels to unlinked meanings
Ferrer Cancho, Ramon
Vocabulary learning by children can be characterized by many biases. When encountering a
new word, children as well as adults, are biased towards assuming that it means something totally
different from the words that they already know. To the best of our knowledge, the 1st mathematical
proof of the optimality of this bias is presented here. First, it is shown that this bias is a particular case of the maximization of mutual information between words and meanings. Second, the optimality is proven within a more general information theoretic framework where mutual information maximization competes with other information theoretic principles. The bias is a prediction from modern information theory. The relationship between information theoretic principles and the principles of contrast and mutual exclusivity is also shown.
2017-03-16T07:42:34ZFerrer Cancho, RamonVocabulary learning by children can be characterized by many biases. When encountering a
new word, children as well as adults, are biased towards assuming that it means something totally
different from the words that they already know. To the best of our knowledge, the 1st mathematical
proof of the optimality of this bias is presented here. First, it is shown that this bias is a particular case of the maximization of mutual information between words and meanings. Second, the optimality is proven within a more general information theoretic framework where mutual information maximization competes with other information theoretic principles. The bias is a prediction from modern information theory. The relationship between information theoretic principles and the principles of contrast and mutual exclusivity is also shown.Emergence of linguistic laws in human voice
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/102394
Emergence of linguistic laws in human voice
González Torre, Iván; Luque Serrano, Bartolo; Lacasa, Lucas; Luque, Jordi; Hernández Fernández, Antonio
Linguistic laws constitute one of the quantitative cornerstones of modern cognitive sciences and have been routinely investigated in written corpora, or in the equivalent transcription of oral corpora.
This means that inferences of statistical patterns of language in acoustics are biased by the arbitrary, language-dependent segmentation of the signal, and virtually precludes the possibility of making comparative studies between human voice and other animal communication systems. Here we bridge this gap by proposing a method that allows to measure such patterns in acoustic signals of arbitrary origin, without needs to have access to the language corpus underneath. The method has been applied to sixteen different human languages, recovering successfully some well-known laws of human communication at timescales even below the phoneme and finding yet another link between complexity and criticality in a biological system. These methods further pave the way for new comparative studies in animal communication or the analysis of signals of unknown code.
2017-03-13T12:32:27ZGonzález Torre, IvánLuque Serrano, BartoloLacasa, LucasLuque, JordiHernández Fernández, AntonioLinguistic laws constitute one of the quantitative cornerstones of modern cognitive sciences and have been routinely investigated in written corpora, or in the equivalent transcription of oral corpora.
This means that inferences of statistical patterns of language in acoustics are biased by the arbitrary, language-dependent segmentation of the signal, and virtually precludes the possibility of making comparative studies between human voice and other animal communication systems. Here we bridge this gap by proposing a method that allows to measure such patterns in acoustic signals of arbitrary origin, without needs to have access to the language corpus underneath. The method has been applied to sixteen different human languages, recovering successfully some well-known laws of human communication at timescales even below the phoneme and finding yet another link between complexity and criticality in a biological system. These methods further pave the way for new comparative studies in animal communication or the analysis of signals of unknown code.Simplicity, relativizations, and nondeterminism
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/102119
Simplicity, relativizations, and nondeterminism
Balcázar Navarro, José Luis
Relativizations of complexity classes in which simple sets exist are considered. A recursive oracle is constructed relative to which a simple set exists for NP. Some other general theorems are proven, showing that the time bounds are not a crucial hypothesis; bounds on the way in which the oracle is accessible, namely the number of queries and/or the number of nondeterministic steps, are shown to be the fundamental hypothesis. As a result, simple sets are shown to exist in many different relativized complexity classes
2017-03-08T11:20:53ZBalcázar Navarro, José LuisRelativizations of complexity classes in which simple sets exist are considered. A recursive oracle is constructed relative to which a simple set exists for NP. Some other general theorems are proven, showing that the time bounds are not a crucial hypothesis; bounds on the way in which the oracle is accessible, namely the number of queries and/or the number of nondeterministic steps, are shown to be the fundamental hypothesis. As a result, simple sets are shown to exist in many different relativized complexity classesA construction of continuous-time ARMA models by iterations of Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/102108
A construction of continuous-time ARMA models by iterations of Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes
Arratia Quesada, Argimiro Alejandro; Cabaña, Ana Alejandra; Cabaña Perez, Enrique
We present a construction of a family of continuous-time ARMA processes based on p iterations of the linear operator that maps a Lévy process onto an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. The construction resembles the procedure to build an AR(p) from an AR(1). We show that this family is in fact a subfamily of the well-known CARMA(p,q) processes, with several interesting advantages, including a smaller number of parameters. The resulting processes are linear combinations of Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes all driven by the same L´evy process. This provides a straightforward computation of covariances, a state-space model representation and methods for estimating parameters. Furthermore, the discrete and equally spaced sampling of the process turns to be an ARMA(p, p-1) process. We propose methods for estimating the parameters of the iterated Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process when the noise is either driven by a Wiener or a more general Lévy process, and show simulations and applications to real data.
2017-03-08T09:17:40ZArratia Quesada, Argimiro AlejandroCabaña, Ana AlejandraCabaña Perez, EnriqueWe present a construction of a family of continuous-time ARMA processes based on p iterations of the linear operator that maps a Lévy process onto an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. The construction resembles the procedure to build an AR(p) from an AR(1). We show that this family is in fact a subfamily of the well-known CARMA(p,q) processes, with several interesting advantages, including a smaller number of parameters. The resulting processes are linear combinations of Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes all driven by the same L´evy process. This provides a straightforward computation of covariances, a state-space model representation and methods for estimating parameters. Furthermore, the discrete and equally spaced sampling of the process turns to be an ARMA(p, p-1) process. We propose methods for estimating the parameters of the iterated Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process when the noise is either driven by a Wiener or a more general Lévy process, and show simulations and applications to real data.Learning definite Horn formulas from closure queries
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/101185
Learning definite Horn formulas from closure queries
Arias Vicente, Marta; Balcázar Navarro, José Luis; Tîrnauca, Cristina
A definite Horn theory is a set of n-dimensional Boolean vectors whose characteristic function is expressible as a definite Horn formula, that is, as conjunction of definite Horn clauses. The class of definite Horn theories is known to be learnable under different query learning settings, such as learning from membership and equivalence queries or learning from entailment. We propose yet a different type of query: the closure query. Closure queries are a natural extension of membership queries and also a variant, appropriate in the context of definite Horn formulas, of the so-called correction queries. We present an algorithm that learns conjunctions of definite Horn clauses in polynomial time, using closure and equivalence queries, and show how it relates to the canonical Guigues–Duquenne basis for implicational systems. We also show how the different query models mentioned relate to each other by either showing full-fledged reductions by means of query simulation (where possible), or by showing their connections in the context of particular algorithms that use them for learning definite Horn formulas.
2017-02-17T12:58:08ZArias Vicente, MartaBalcázar Navarro, José LuisTîrnauca, CristinaA definite Horn theory is a set of n-dimensional Boolean vectors whose characteristic function is expressible as a definite Horn formula, that is, as conjunction of definite Horn clauses. The class of definite Horn theories is known to be learnable under different query learning settings, such as learning from membership and equivalence queries or learning from entailment. We propose yet a different type of query: the closure query. Closure queries are a natural extension of membership queries and also a variant, appropriate in the context of definite Horn formulas, of the so-called correction queries. We present an algorithm that learns conjunctions of definite Horn clauses in polynomial time, using closure and equivalence queries, and show how it relates to the canonical Guigues–Duquenne basis for implicational systems. We also show how the different query models mentioned relate to each other by either showing full-fledged reductions by means of query simulation (where possible), or by showing their connections in the context of particular algorithms that use them for learning definite Horn formulas.Compression and the origins of Zipf's law for word frequencies
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/100379
Compression and the origins of Zipf's law for word frequencies
Ferrer Cancho, Ramon
Here we sketch a new derivation of Zipf's law for word frequencies based on optimal coding. The structure of the derivation is reminiscent of Mandelbrot's random typing model but it has multiple advantages over random typing: (1) it starts from realistic cognitive pressures, (2) it does not require fine tuning of parameters, and (3) it sheds light on the origins of other statistical laws of language and thus can lead to a compact theory of linguistic laws. Our findings suggest that the recurrence of Zipf's law in human languages could originate from pressure for easy and fast communication.
2017-01-31T12:44:17ZFerrer Cancho, RamonHere we sketch a new derivation of Zipf's law for word frequencies based on optimal coding. The structure of the derivation is reminiscent of Mandelbrot's random typing model but it has multiple advantages over random typing: (1) it starts from realistic cognitive pressures, (2) it does not require fine tuning of parameters, and (3) it sheds light on the origins of other statistical laws of language and thus can lead to a compact theory of linguistic laws. Our findings suggest that the recurrence of Zipf's law in human languages could originate from pressure for easy and fast communication.Crossings as a side effect of dependency lengths
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/100375
Crossings as a side effect of dependency lengths
Ferrer Cancho, Ramon; Gómez Rodríguez, Carlos
The syntactic structure of sentences exhibits a striking regularity: dependencies tend to not cross when drawn above the sentence. We investigate two competing explanations. The traditional hypothesis is that this trend arises from an independent principle of syntax that reduces crossings practically to zero. An alternative to this view is the hypothesis that crossings are a side effect of dependency lengths, that is, sentences with shorter dependency lengths should tend to have fewer crossings. We are able to reject the traditional view in the majority of languages considered. The alternative hypothesis can lead to a more parsimonious theory of language.
2017-01-31T12:01:36ZFerrer Cancho, RamonGómez Rodríguez, CarlosThe syntactic structure of sentences exhibits a striking regularity: dependencies tend to not cross when drawn above the sentence. We investigate two competing explanations. The traditional hypothesis is that this trend arises from an independent principle of syntax that reduces crossings practically to zero. An alternative to this view is the hypothesis that crossings are a side effect of dependency lengths, that is, sentences with shorter dependency lengths should tend to have fewer crossings. We are able to reject the traditional view in the majority of languages considered. The alternative hypothesis can lead to a more parsimonious theory of language.