L'AIRE - Laboratori Aeronàutic i Industrial de Recerca i Estudis
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/3480
2016-09-26T14:09:16ZReliability versus mass optimization of CO2 extraction technologies for long duration missions
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/89135
Reliability versus mass optimization of CO2 extraction technologies for long duration missions
Detrell Domingo, Gisela; Griful Ponsati, Eulàlia; Messerschmid, Ernst
The aim of this paper is to optimize reliability and mass of three CO2 extraction technologies/components: the 4-Bed Molecular Sieve, the Electrochemical Depolarized Concentrator and the Solid Amine Water Desorption. The first one is currently used in the International Space Station and the last two are being developed, and could be used for future long duration missions. This work is part of a complex study of the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) reliability. The result of this paper is a methodology to analyze the reliability and mass at a component level, which is used in this paper for the CO2 extraction technologies, but that can be applied to the ECLSS technologies that perform other tasks, such as oxygen generation or water recycling, which will be a required input for the analysis of an entire ECLSS. The key parameter to evaluate any system to be used in space is mass, as it is directly related to the launch cost. Moreover, for long duration missions, reliability will play an even more important role, as no resupply or rescue mission is taken into consideration. Each technology is studied as a reparable system, where the number of spare parts to be taken for a specific mission will need to be selected, to maximize the reliability and minimize the mass of the system. The problem faced is a Multi-Objective Optimization Problem (MOOP), which does not have a single solution. Thus, optimum solutions of MOOP, the ones that cannot be improved in one of the two objectives, without degrading the other one, are found for each selected technology. The solutions of the MOOP for the three technologies are analyzed and compared, considering other parameters such as the type of mission, the maturity of the technology and potential interactions/synergies with other technologies of the ECLSS.
2016-07-25T10:43:03ZDetrell Domingo, GiselaGriful Ponsati, EulàliaMesserschmid, ErnstThe aim of this paper is to optimize reliability and mass of three CO2 extraction technologies/components: the 4-Bed Molecular Sieve, the Electrochemical Depolarized Concentrator and the Solid Amine Water Desorption. The first one is currently used in the International Space Station and the last two are being developed, and could be used for future long duration missions. This work is part of a complex study of the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) reliability. The result of this paper is a methodology to analyze the reliability and mass at a component level, which is used in this paper for the CO2 extraction technologies, but that can be applied to the ECLSS technologies that perform other tasks, such as oxygen generation or water recycling, which will be a required input for the analysis of an entire ECLSS. The key parameter to evaluate any system to be used in space is mass, as it is directly related to the launch cost. Moreover, for long duration missions, reliability will play an even more important role, as no resupply or rescue mission is taken into consideration. Each technology is studied as a reparable system, where the number of spare parts to be taken for a specific mission will need to be selected, to maximize the reliability and minimize the mass of the system. The problem faced is a Multi-Objective Optimization Problem (MOOP), which does not have a single solution. Thus, optimum solutions of MOOP, the ones that cannot be improved in one of the two objectives, without degrading the other one, are found for each selected technology. The solutions of the MOOP for the three technologies are analyzed and compared, considering other parameters such as the type of mission, the maturity of the technology and potential interactions/synergies with other technologies of the ECLSS.Review of Lambert's problem
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/86429
Review of Lambert's problem
Torre Sangrà, David de la; Fantino, Elena
Lambert’s problem is the orbital boundary-value problem constrained by two points and elapsed time. It is one of the most extensively studied problems in celestial mechanics and astrodynamics, and, as such, it has always attracted the interest of mathematicians and engineers. Its solution lies at the base of algorithms for, e.g., orbit determination, orbit design (mission planning), space rendezvous and interception, space debris correlation, missile and spacecraft targeting. There is abundance of literature discussing various approaches developed over the years to solve Lambert’s problem. We have collected more than 70 papers and, of course, the issue is treated in most astrodynamics and celestial mechanics textbooks. From our analysis of the documents, we have been able to identify five or six main solution methods, each associated to a number of revisions and variations, and many, so to say, secondary research lines with little or no posterior development. We have ascertained plenty of literature with proposed solutions, in many cases supplemented by performance comparisons with other methods. We have reviewed and organized the existing bibliography on Lambert’s problem and we have performed a quantitative comparison among the existing methods for its solution. The analysis is based on the following issues: choice of the free parameter, number of iterations,generality of the mathematical formulation, limits of applicability (degeneracies, domain of the parameter, special cases and peculiarities), accuracy, and suitability to automatic execution. Eventually we have tested the performance of each code. The solvers that incorporate the best qualities are Bate’s algorithm via universal variables with Newton-Raphson and Izzo’s Householder algorithm. The former is the fastest, the latter exhibits the best ratio between speed, robustness and accuracy.
2016-04-29T13:51:49ZTorre Sangrà, David de laFantino, ElenaLambert’s problem is the orbital boundary-value problem constrained by two points and elapsed time. It is one of the most extensively studied problems in celestial mechanics and astrodynamics, and, as such, it has always attracted the interest of mathematicians and engineers. Its solution lies at the base of algorithms for, e.g., orbit determination, orbit design (mission planning), space rendezvous and interception, space debris correlation, missile and spacecraft targeting. There is abundance of literature discussing various approaches developed over the years to solve Lambert’s problem. We have collected more than 70 papers and, of course, the issue is treated in most astrodynamics and celestial mechanics textbooks. From our analysis of the documents, we have been able to identify five or six main solution methods, each associated to a number of revisions and variations, and many, so to say, secondary research lines with little or no posterior development. We have ascertained plenty of literature with proposed solutions, in many cases supplemented by performance comparisons with other methods. We have reviewed and organized the existing bibliography on Lambert’s problem and we have performed a quantitative comparison among the existing methods for its solution. The analysis is based on the following issues: choice of the free parameter, number of iterations,generality of the mathematical formulation, limits of applicability (degeneracies, domain of the parameter, special cases and peculiarities), accuracy, and suitability to automatic execution. Eventually we have tested the performance of each code. The solvers that incorporate the best qualities are Bate’s algorithm via universal variables with Newton-Raphson and Izzo’s Householder algorithm. The former is the fastest, the latter exhibits the best ratio between speed, robustness and accuracy.Analysis of perturbations and station-keeping requirements in highly-inclined geosynchronous orbits
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/86428
Analysis of perturbations and station-keeping requirements in highly-inclined geosynchronous orbits
Fantino, Elena; Flores Le Roux, Roberto Maurice; Di Salvo, Alessio; Di Carlo, Marilena
There is a demand for communications services at high latitudes that is not well served by conventional geostationary satellites. Alternatives using low-altitude orbits require too large constellations. Other options are the Molniya and Tundra families (critically-inclined, eccentric orbits with the apogee at high latitudes). In this work we have considered derivatives of the Tundra type with different inclinations and eccentricities. By means of a high-precision model of the terrestrial gravity field and the most relevant environmental perturbations, we have studied the evolution of these orbits during a period of two years. The effects of the different perturbations on the constellation ground track (which is more important for coverage than the orbital elements themselves) have been identified. We show that, in order to maintain the ground track unchanged, the most important parameters are the orbital period and the argument of the perigee. Very subtle changes in the orbital period (due mainly to lunar perturbations) cause a large east-west drift of the ground trace which dwarfs the displacement due to the regression of the ascending node. From these findings, a station-keeping strategy that minimizes propellant consumption has then been devised. Our results offer interesting guidelines for the design and operation of satellite constellations using these orbits.
2016-04-29T13:21:01ZFantino, ElenaFlores Le Roux, Roberto MauriceDi Salvo, AlessioDi Carlo, MarilenaThere is a demand for communications services at high latitudes that is not well served by conventional geostationary satellites. Alternatives using low-altitude orbits require too large constellations. Other options are the Molniya and Tundra families (critically-inclined, eccentric orbits with the apogee at high latitudes). In this work we have considered derivatives of the Tundra type with different inclinations and eccentricities. By means of a high-precision model of the terrestrial gravity field and the most relevant environmental perturbations, we have studied the evolution of these orbits during a period of two years. The effects of the different perturbations on the constellation ground track (which is more important for coverage than the orbital elements themselves) have been identified. We show that, in order to maintain the ground track unchanged, the most important parameters are the orbital period and the argument of the perigee. Very subtle changes in the orbital period (due mainly to lunar perturbations) cause a large east-west drift of the ground trace which dwarfs the displacement due to the regression of the ascending node. From these findings, a station-keeping strategy that minimizes propellant consumption has then been devised. Our results offer interesting guidelines for the design and operation of satellite constellations using these orbits.A meshless finite point method for three-dimensional analysis of compressible flow problems involving moving boundaries and adaptivity
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/86276
A meshless finite point method for three-dimensional analysis of compressible flow problems involving moving boundaries and adaptivity
Ortega, Enrique; Oñate Ibáñez de Navarra, Eugenio; Idelsohn Barg, Sergio Rodolfo; Flores Le Roux, Roberto Maurice
A finite point method for solving compressible flow problems involving moving boundaries and adaptivity is presented. The numerical methodology is based on an upwind-biased discretization of the Euler equations, written in arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian form and integrated in time by means of a dual-time steeping technique. In order to exploit the meshless potential of the method, a domain deformation approach based on the spring network analogy is implemented, and h-adaptivity is also employed in the computations. Typical movable boundary problems in transonic flow regime are solved to assess the performance of the proposed technique. In addition, an application to a fluid–structure interaction problem involving static aeroelasticity illustrates the capability of the method to deal with practical engineering analyses. The computational cost and multi-core performance of the proposed technique is also discussed through the examples provided.
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2016-04-27T14:59:20ZOrtega, EnriqueOñate Ibáñez de Navarra, EugenioIdelsohn Barg, Sergio RodolfoFlores Le Roux, Roberto MauriceA finite point method for solving compressible flow problems involving moving boundaries and adaptivity is presented. The numerical methodology is based on an upwind-biased discretization of the Euler equations, written in arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian form and integrated in time by means of a dual-time steeping technique. In order to exploit the meshless potential of the method, a domain deformation approach based on the spring network analogy is implemented, and h-adaptivity is also employed in the computations. Typical movable boundary problems in transonic flow regime are solved to assess the performance of the proposed technique. In addition, an application to a fluid–structure interaction problem involving static aeroelasticity illustrates the capability of the method to deal with practical engineering analyses. The computational cost and multi-core performance of the proposed technique is also discussed through the examples provided.Three-dimensional numerical simulation of an external gear pump with decompression slot and meshing contact point
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/85440
Three-dimensional numerical simulation of an external gear pump with decompression slot and meshing contact point
Castilla López, Roberto; Gámez Montero, Pedro Javier; Campo Sud, David del; Raush Alviach, Gustavo Adolfo; García Vilchez, Mercedes; Codina Macià, Esteban
Recently several works have been published on numerical simulation of an external gear pump (EGP). Such kinds of pumps are simple and relatively inexpensive, and are frequently used in fluid power applications, such as fluid power in aeronautical, mechanical, and civil engineering. Nevertheless, considerable effort is being undertaken to improve efficiency and reduce noise and vibration produced by the flow and pressure pulsations. Numerical simulation of an EGP is not straightforward principally for two main reasons. First, the gearing mechanism between gears makes it difficult to handle a dynamic mesh without a considerable deterioration of mesh quality. Second, the dynamic metal-metal contact simulation is important when high pressure outflow has to be reproduced. The numerical studies published so far are based on a two-dimensional (2D) approximation. The aim of the present work is to contribute to the understanding of the fluid flow inside an EGP by means of a complete three-dimensional (3D) parallel simulation on a cluster. The 3D flow is simulated in a LINUX cluster with a solver developed with the OPENFOAM Toolbox. The hexahedral mesh quality is maintained by periodically replacing the mesh and interpolating the physical magnitudes fields. The meshing contact point is simulated with the viscous wall approach, using a viscosity model based on wall proximity. The results for the flow rate ripples show a similar behavior to that obtained with 2D simulations. However, the flow presents important differences inside the suction and the discharge chambers, principally in the regions of the pipes' connection. Moreover, the decompression slot below the gearing zone, which can not be simulated with a 2D approximation, enables a more realistic simulation of a contact ratio greater than 1. The results are compared with experimental measurements recently published.
2016-04-08T14:13:47ZCastilla López, RobertoGámez Montero, Pedro JavierCampo Sud, David delRaush Alviach, Gustavo AdolfoGarcía Vilchez, MercedesCodina Macià, EstebanRecently several works have been published on numerical simulation of an external gear pump (EGP). Such kinds of pumps are simple and relatively inexpensive, and are frequently used in fluid power applications, such as fluid power in aeronautical, mechanical, and civil engineering. Nevertheless, considerable effort is being undertaken to improve efficiency and reduce noise and vibration produced by the flow and pressure pulsations. Numerical simulation of an EGP is not straightforward principally for two main reasons. First, the gearing mechanism between gears makes it difficult to handle a dynamic mesh without a considerable deterioration of mesh quality. Second, the dynamic metal-metal contact simulation is important when high pressure outflow has to be reproduced. The numerical studies published so far are based on a two-dimensional (2D) approximation. The aim of the present work is to contribute to the understanding of the fluid flow inside an EGP by means of a complete three-dimensional (3D) parallel simulation on a cluster. The 3D flow is simulated in a LINUX cluster with a solver developed with the OPENFOAM Toolbox. The hexahedral mesh quality is maintained by periodically replacing the mesh and interpolating the physical magnitudes fields. The meshing contact point is simulated with the viscous wall approach, using a viscosity model based on wall proximity. The results for the flow rate ripples show a similar behavior to that obtained with 2D simulations. However, the flow presents important differences inside the suction and the discharge chambers, principally in the regions of the pipes' connection. Moreover, the decompression slot below the gearing zone, which can not be simulated with a 2D approximation, enables a more realistic simulation of a contact ratio greater than 1. The results are compared with experimental measurements recently published.Modelling harmonics drawn by nonlinear loads
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/76228
Modelling harmonics drawn by nonlinear loads
Lamich Arocas, Manuel; Balcells Sendra, Josep; Mon González, Juan; Corbalán Fuertes, Montserrat; Griful Ponsati, Eulàlia
This paper is devoted to obtain a model of
nonlinear loads (NLL) connected to LV electric networks, in
order to predict the consequences of including parallel active or
passive filters. The model is based on Neural Networks (NNs) and
its purpose is the prediction of harmonic currents generated by a
certain load when supplied by a network with significant series
impedance, disturbed by other random and unknown neighbour
loads. The NNs have been trained by using data obtained from
several circuit simulations of a network supplying several
unknown neighbour loads beside the load of interest, consisting
of a set of rectifiers. The model is validated using the same
network structure, with different neighbour loads and different
load conditions.
2015-07-20T11:37:01ZLamich Arocas, ManuelBalcells Sendra, JosepMon González, JuanCorbalán Fuertes, MontserratGriful Ponsati, EulàliaThis paper is devoted to obtain a model of
nonlinear loads (NLL) connected to LV electric networks, in
order to predict the consequences of including parallel active or
passive filters. The model is based on Neural Networks (NNs) and
its purpose is the prediction of harmonic currents generated by a
certain load when supplied by a network with significant series
impedance, disturbed by other random and unknown neighbour
loads. The NNs have been trained by using data obtained from
several circuit simulations of a network supplying several
unknown neighbour loads beside the load of interest, consisting
of a set of rectifiers. The model is validated using the same
network structure, with different neighbour loads and different
load conditions.A meshless finite point method for three dimensional analysis of compressible flow problems involving moving boundaries and adaptivity
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/28569
A meshless finite point method for three dimensional analysis of compressible flow problems involving moving boundaries and adaptivity
Ortega, Enrique; Oñate Ibáñez de Navarra, Eugenio; Idelsohn Barg, Sergio Rodolfo; Flores Le Roux, Roberto Maurice
A finite point method for solving compressible flow problems involving moving boundaries and adaptivity is presented. The numerical methodology is based on an upwind-biased discretization of the Euler equations, written in arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian form and integrated in time by means of a dual-time steeping technique. In order to exploit the meshless potential of the method, a domain deformation approach based on the spring network analogy is implemented, and h-adaptivity is also employed in the computations. Typical movable boundary problems in transonic flow regime are solved to assess the performance of the proposed technique. In addition, an application to a fluid–structure interaction problem involving static aeroelasticity illustrates the capability of the method to deal with practical engineering analyses. The computational cost and multi-core performance of the proposed technique is also discussed through the examples provided.
2015-07-13T10:44:47ZOrtega, EnriqueOñate Ibáñez de Navarra, EugenioIdelsohn Barg, Sergio RodolfoFlores Le Roux, Roberto MauriceA finite point method for solving compressible flow problems involving moving boundaries and adaptivity is presented. The numerical methodology is based on an upwind-biased discretization of the Euler equations, written in arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian form and integrated in time by means of a dual-time steeping technique. In order to exploit the meshless potential of the method, a domain deformation approach based on the spring network analogy is implemented, and h-adaptivity is also employed in the computations. Typical movable boundary problems in transonic flow regime are solved to assess the performance of the proposed technique. In addition, an application to a fluid–structure interaction problem involving static aeroelasticity illustrates the capability of the method to deal with practical engineering analyses. The computational cost and multi-core performance of the proposed technique is also discussed through the examples provided.Preliminary study on fluidic actuators. Design modifications
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/28310
Preliminary study on fluidic actuators. Design modifications
Campo Sud, David del; Bergadà Granyó, Josep Maria; Campo Gatell, Vanessa del
As fluidic actuators have the advantage of lacking moving parts, their use in real applications brings high reliability. This is why, once having overcome their drawbacks, which means being able to provide the appropriate momentum and frequency, they could extensively be used in a wide range of applications. The present paper will present a CFD evaluation of the flow inside a fluidic oscillator. Initially a standard fluidic actuator will be simulated and the results compared with existing experimental data. In a second step, several geometric parameters will be modified; the actuator performance under these new conditions is reported. The paper aims to be an aid for future innovative oscillator designs.
2015-06-15T15:31:45ZCampo Sud, David delBergadà Granyó, Josep MariaCampo Gatell, Vanessa delAs fluidic actuators have the advantage of lacking moving parts, their use in real applications brings high reliability. This is why, once having overcome their drawbacks, which means being able to provide the appropriate momentum and frequency, they could extensively be used in a wide range of applications. The present paper will present a CFD evaluation of the flow inside a fluidic oscillator. Initially a standard fluidic actuator will be simulated and the results compared with existing experimental data. In a second step, several geometric parameters will be modified; the actuator performance under these new conditions is reported. The paper aims to be an aid for future innovative oscillator designs.A simulation tool for parachute/payload systems
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/26732
A simulation tool for parachute/payload systems
Flores Le Roux, Roberto Maurice; Ortega, Enrique; Vallés Fluvià, J.; Oñate Ibáñez de Navarra, Eugenio
The design and evaluation of parachute-payload systems is a technology field in which numerical analysis tools can make very important contributions. This work describes a new development from CIMNE in this area, a coupled fluid-structural solver for unsteady
simulations of ram-air type parachutes. For an efficient solution of the aerodynamic problem, an unsteady panel method has been chosen exploiting the fact that large areas of separated
flow are not expected under nominal flight conditions of ram-air parachutes. A dynamic explicit finite element solver is used for the structure. This approach yields a robust solution
even when highly non-linear effects due to large displacements and material response are present. An added benefit of the proposed aerodynamic and structural techniques is that they
can be easily parallelized for increased performance in multi-core and multi-CPU architectures. The main features of the computational tools are described and several numerical examples are provided to illustrate the performance and capabilities of the
technique.
2015-03-16T14:39:52ZFlores Le Roux, Roberto MauriceOrtega, EnriqueVallés Fluvià, J.Oñate Ibáñez de Navarra, EugenioThe design and evaluation of parachute-payload systems is a technology field in which numerical analysis tools can make very important contributions. This work describes a new development from CIMNE in this area, a coupled fluid-structural solver for unsteady
simulations of ram-air type parachutes. For an efficient solution of the aerodynamic problem, an unsteady panel method has been chosen exploiting the fact that large areas of separated
flow are not expected under nominal flight conditions of ram-air parachutes. A dynamic explicit finite element solver is used for the structure. This approach yields a robust solution
even when highly non-linear effects due to large displacements and material response are present. An added benefit of the proposed aerodynamic and structural techniques is that they
can be easily parallelized for increased performance in multi-core and multi-CPU architectures. The main features of the computational tools are described and several numerical examples are provided to illustrate the performance and capabilities of the
technique.Pressure effects on the performance of external gear pumps under cavitation
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/25113
Pressure effects on the performance of external gear pumps under cavitation
Campo Sud, David del; Castilla López, Roberto; Raush Alviach, Gustavo Adolfo; Gámez Montero, Pedro Javier; Codina Macià, Esteban
The numerical analysis of an external gear pump with cavitation effects has been validated with experimental data obtained by applying Time-Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry. The effect of inlet and outlet pressure on volumetric efficiency has been studied numerically. First, the Particle Image Velocimetry method was used to analyze the two-dimensional velocity field in the middle plane of the suction chamber of the gear pump. The main improvement, with respect to previous similar analysis is the use of alginate micro particles as tracers. It is seen that the two-dimensional model is able to characterize the flow field of the real pump in the region of the inlet chamber in which cavitation is expected. In a previous study, it was seen that a cavitation cloud acted as a virtual contact point at low pressure, being responsible for an increase on the volumetric efficiency. The first set of simulations represents the pump working with high outlet pressure. Now, the cavitation cloud is not present and cavitation no longer helps to improve the efficiency of the pump. The second set of simulations represents the pump with an inlet loss factor, which implies a mean inlet pressure below atmospheric conditions. This allows cavitation clouds to propagate upstream. Despite the larger cavitation clouds, volumetric efficiency only drops at high operating velocities, when some clouds become trapped between gears and casing and are transported to the pressure side.
2014-12-19T16:57:53ZCampo Sud, David delCastilla López, RobertoRaush Alviach, Gustavo AdolfoGámez Montero, Pedro JavierCodina Macià, EstebanThe numerical analysis of an external gear pump with cavitation effects has been validated with experimental data obtained by applying Time-Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry. The effect of inlet and outlet pressure on volumetric efficiency has been studied numerically. First, the Particle Image Velocimetry method was used to analyze the two-dimensional velocity field in the middle plane of the suction chamber of the gear pump. The main improvement, with respect to previous similar analysis is the use of alginate micro particles as tracers. It is seen that the two-dimensional model is able to characterize the flow field of the real pump in the region of the inlet chamber in which cavitation is expected. In a previous study, it was seen that a cavitation cloud acted as a virtual contact point at low pressure, being responsible for an increase on the volumetric efficiency. The first set of simulations represents the pump working with high outlet pressure. Now, the cavitation cloud is not present and cavitation no longer helps to improve the efficiency of the pump. The second set of simulations represents the pump with an inlet loss factor, which implies a mean inlet pressure below atmospheric conditions. This allows cavitation clouds to propagate upstream. Despite the larger cavitation clouds, volumetric efficiency only drops at high operating velocities, when some clouds become trapped between gears and casing and are transported to the pressure side.