Reports de recerca
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/3431
2017-12-13T18:46:00ZOn alpha-roughly weighted games
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/103235
On alpha-roughly weighted games
Freixas Bosch, Josep; Kurz, Sascha
Very recently Gvozdeva, Hemaspaandra, and Slinko (2011) h
ave introduced three hierarchies for simple games in order to measure the distance of a given simple game to the class of weighted voting games or roughly weighted voting games. Their third class C aconsists of all simple games
permitting a weighted representation such that each winnin
g coalition has a weight of at least 1 and each losing coalition a weight of at most a. We continue their work and contribute some new results on the possible values of a for a given number of voters.
2017-04-03T15:53:36ZFreixas Bosch, JosepKurz, SaschaVery recently Gvozdeva, Hemaspaandra, and Slinko (2011) h
ave introduced three hierarchies for simple games in order to measure the distance of a given simple game to the class of weighted voting games or roughly weighted voting games. Their third class C aconsists of all simple games
permitting a weighted representation such that each winnin
g coalition has a weight of at least 1 and each losing coalition a weight of at most a. We continue their work and contribute some new results on the possible values of a for a given number of voters.The complexity of testing properties of simple games
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/103171
The complexity of testing properties of simple games
Freixas Bosch, Josep; Molinero Albareda, Xavier; Olsen, Martin; Serna Iglesias, María José
Simple games cover voting systems in which a single alternative, such as a bill or an amendment, is pitted against the status quo. A simple game or a yes-no voting system is a set of rules that specifies exactly which collections of ``yea'' votes yield passage of the issue at hand. A collection of ``yea'' voters forms a winning coalition.
We are interested on performing a complexity analysis of problems on such games depending on the game representation. We consider four natural explicit representations, winning, loosing, minimal winning, and maximal loosing. We first analyze the computational complexity of obtaining a particular representation of a simple game from a different one. We show that some cases this transformation can be done in polynomial time while the others require exponential time. The second question is classifying the complexity for testing whether a game is simple or weighted. We show that for the four types of representation both problem can be solved in polynomial time. Finally, we provide results on the complexity of testing whether a simple game or a weighted game is of a special type. In this way, we analyze strongness, properness, decisiveness and homogeneity, which are desirable properties to be fulfilled for a simple game.
2017-03-31T15:48:07ZFreixas Bosch, JosepMolinero Albareda, XavierOlsen, MartinSerna Iglesias, María JoséSimple games cover voting systems in which a single alternative, such as a bill or an amendment, is pitted against the status quo. A simple game or a yes-no voting system is a set of rules that specifies exactly which collections of ``yea'' votes yield passage of the issue at hand. A collection of ``yea'' voters forms a winning coalition.
We are interested on performing a complexity analysis of problems on such games depending on the game representation. We consider four natural explicit representations, winning, loosing, minimal winning, and maximal loosing. We first analyze the computational complexity of obtaining a particular representation of a simple game from a different one. We show that some cases this transformation can be done in polynomial time while the others require exponential time. The second question is classifying the complexity for testing whether a game is simple or weighted. We show that for the four types of representation both problem can be solved in polynomial time. Finally, we provide results on the complexity of testing whether a simple game or a weighted game is of a special type. In this way, we analyze strongness, properness, decisiveness and homogeneity, which are desirable properties to be fulfilled for a simple game.Measuring satisfaction in societies with opinion leaders and mediators
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/101810
Measuring satisfaction in societies with opinion leaders and mediators
Molinero Albareda, Xavier; Riquelme Csori, F.; Serna Iglesias, María José
An opinion leader-follower model (OLF) is a two-action collective decision-making model for societies, in which three kinds of actors are considered:
2017-03-01T16:19:14ZMolinero Albareda, XavierRiquelme Csori, F.Serna Iglesias, María JoséAn opinion leader-follower model (OLF) is a two-action collective decision-making model for societies, in which three kinds of actors are considered:Generic algorithms for the generation of combinatorial objects
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/97031
Generic algorithms for the generation of combinatorial objects
Molinero Albareda, Xavier; Martínez Parra, Conrado
This report briefly describes our generic approach to the exhaustive generation of unlabelled and labelled combinatorial classes. Our algorithms receive a size n and a finite description of a combinatorial class A using combinatorial operators such as union, product, set or sequence, in order to list all objects of size n in A. The algorithms work in constant amortized time per generated object and thus they are suitable for rapid prototyping or for inclusion in general libraries.
2016-11-22T14:37:57ZMolinero Albareda, XavierMartínez Parra, ConradoThis report briefly describes our generic approach to the exhaustive generation of unlabelled and labelled combinatorial classes. Our algorithms receive a size n and a finite description of a combinatorial class A using combinatorial operators such as union, product, set or sequence, in order to list all objects of size n in A. The algorithms work in constant amortized time per generated object and thus they are suitable for rapid prototyping or for inclusion in general libraries.An Efficient generic algorithm for the generation of unlabelled cycles
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/97029
An Efficient generic algorithm for the generation of unlabelled cycles
Martínez Parra, Conrado; Molinero Albareda, Xavier
In this report we combine two recent generation algorithms to obtain a
new algorithm for the generation of unlabelled cycles. Sawada's
algorithm lists all k-ary unlabelled cycles with fixed
content, that is, the
number of occurences of each symbol is fixed and given a priori.
The other algorithm, by the authors, generates all
multisets of objects with given total size n from any admissible
unlabelled class A. By admissible
we mean that the class can be specificied using atomic classes,
disjoints unions, products, sequences, (multi)sets, etc.
The resulting algorithm, which is the main contribution of this paper,
generates all cycles of objects with given total size n from any
admissible class A. Given the
generic nature of the algorithm, it is suitable for inclusion in
combinatorial libraries and for rapid prototyping. The new algorithm
incurs constant amortized time per generated cycle, the constant only
depending in the class A to which the objects in the cycle belong.
2016-11-22T14:33:29ZMartínez Parra, ConradoMolinero Albareda, XavierIn this report we combine two recent generation algorithms to obtain a
new algorithm for the generation of unlabelled cycles. Sawada's
algorithm lists all k-ary unlabelled cycles with fixed
content, that is, the
number of occurences of each symbol is fixed and given a priori.
The other algorithm, by the authors, generates all
multisets of objects with given total size n from any admissible
unlabelled class A. By admissible
we mean that the class can be specificied using atomic classes,
disjoints unions, products, sequences, (multi)sets, etc.
The resulting algorithm, which is the main contribution of this paper,
generates all cycles of objects with given total size n from any
admissible class A. Given the
generic nature of the algorithm, it is suitable for inclusion in
combinatorial libraries and for rapid prototyping. The new algorithm
incurs constant amortized time per generated cycle, the constant only
depending in the class A to which the objects in the cycle belong.Some advances in the theory of voting systems based on experimental algorithms
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/87345
Some advances in the theory of voting systems based on experimental algorithms
Freixas Bosch, Josep; Molinero Albareda, Xavier
In voting systems, game theory, switching functions, threshold logic, hypergraphs or coherent structures there is an important problem that consists in determining the weightedness of a voting system by means of trades among voters in sets of coalitions. The fundamental theorem by Taylor and Zwicker cite{TaZw92} establishes the equivalence between weighted voting games and $k$-trade robust games for each positive integer $k$. Moreover, they also construct, in cite{TaZw95}, a succession of games $G_k$ based on magic squares which are $(k-1)$-trade robust but not $k$-trade robust, each one of these games $G_k$ has $k^2$ players. The goal of this paper is to provide improvements by means of different experiments to the problem described above. In particular, we will classify all complete games (a basic class of games) of less than eight players according to they are: a weighted voting game or a game which is $(k-1)$-trade robust but not $k$-trade robust for all values of $k$. As a consequence it will we showed the existence of games with less than $k^2$ players which are $(k-1)$-trade robust but not $k$-trade robust. We want to point out that the classifications obtained in this paper by means of experiments are new in the mentioned fields.
2016-05-26T08:32:43ZFreixas Bosch, JosepMolinero Albareda, XavierIn voting systems, game theory, switching functions, threshold logic, hypergraphs or coherent structures there is an important problem that consists in determining the weightedness of a voting system by means of trades among voters in sets of coalitions. The fundamental theorem by Taylor and Zwicker cite{TaZw92} establishes the equivalence between weighted voting games and $k$-trade robust games for each positive integer $k$. Moreover, they also construct, in cite{TaZw95}, a succession of games $G_k$ based on magic squares which are $(k-1)$-trade robust but not $k$-trade robust, each one of these games $G_k$ has $k^2$ players. The goal of this paper is to provide improvements by means of different experiments to the problem described above. In particular, we will classify all complete games (a basic class of games) of less than eight players according to they are: a weighted voting game or a game which is $(k-1)$-trade robust but not $k$-trade robust for all values of $k$. As a consequence it will we showed the existence of games with less than $k^2$ players which are $(k-1)$-trade robust but not $k$-trade robust. We want to point out that the classifications obtained in this paper by means of experiments are new in the mentioned fields.Minimal representations for majority games
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/86215
Minimal representations for majority games
Freixas Bosch, Josep; Molinero Albareda, Xavier; Roura Ferret, Salvador
This paper presents some new results about majority games. Isbell (1959) was the first to find a majority game without a minimum normalized representation; he needed 12 voters to construct such a game. Since then, it has been an open problem to find the minimum number of voters of a majority game without a minimum normalized representation. Our main new results are: 1. All majority games with less than 9 voters have a minimum representation. 2. For 9 voters there are 14 majority games without a minimum integer representation, but these games admit a minimal normalized integer representation. 3. For 10 voters exist majority games with neither a minimum integer representation nor a minimal normalized integer representation.
2016-04-27T07:22:54ZFreixas Bosch, JosepMolinero Albareda, XavierRoura Ferret, SalvadorThis paper presents some new results about majority games. Isbell (1959) was the first to find a majority game without a minimum normalized representation; he needed 12 voters to construct such a game. Since then, it has been an open problem to find the minimum number of voters of a majority game without a minimum normalized representation. Our main new results are: 1. All majority games with less than 9 voters have a minimum representation. 2. For 9 voters there are 14 majority games without a minimum integer representation, but these games admit a minimal normalized integer representation. 3. For 10 voters exist majority games with neither a minimum integer representation nor a minimal normalized integer representation.Bisemivalues, binomial bisemivalues and multilinear extension for bicooperative games
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/78354
Bisemivalues, binomial bisemivalues and multilinear extension for bicooperative games
Domènech Blázquez, Margarita; Giménez Pradales, José Miguel; Puente del Campo, María Albina
We introduce bisemivalues for bicooperative games and we also provide an interesting characterization of this kind of values by means of weighting coefficients in a similar way than given for semivalues in the context of cooperative games. Moreover, the notion of induced bisemivalues on lower cardinalities also makes sense and an adaptation of Dragan’s recurrence formula is obtained. Besides its characterization, a computational procedure in terms of the multilinear extension of the game is given.
2015-10-27T14:22:43ZDomènech Blázquez, MargaritaGiménez Pradales, José MiguelPuente del Campo, María AlbinaWe introduce bisemivalues for bicooperative games and we also provide an interesting characterization of this kind of values by means of weighting coefficients in a similar way than given for semivalues in the context of cooperative games. Moreover, the notion of induced bisemivalues on lower cardinalities also makes sense and an adaptation of Dragan’s recurrence formula is obtained. Besides its characterization, a computational procedure in terms of the multilinear extension of the game is given.On the complexity of exchanging
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/27400
On the complexity of exchanging
Molinero Albareda, Xavier; Olsen, Martin; Serna Iglesias, María José
We analyze the computational complexity of the problem of deciding
whether, for a given simple game, there exists the possibility of rearranging the participants in a set of j given losing coalitions into a set of j winning coalitions. We also look at the problem of turning winning coalitions into losing coalitions. We analyze the problem when the simple game is represented by a list of wining, losing, minimal winning or maximal loosing coalitions.
2015-04-16T17:13:57ZMolinero Albareda, XavierOlsen, MartinSerna Iglesias, María JoséWe analyze the computational complexity of the problem of deciding
whether, for a given simple game, there exists the possibility of rearranging the participants in a set of j given losing coalitions into a set of j winning coalitions. We also look at the problem of turning winning coalitions into losing coalitions. We analyze the problem when the simple game is represented by a list of wining, losing, minimal winning or maximal loosing coalitions.Decisiveness of decisive symmetric games
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/12437
Decisiveness of decisive symmetric games
Carreras Escobar, Francisco; Freixas Bosch, Josep; Puente del Campo, María Albina
Binary voting systems, usually represented by simple games, constitute a main DSS topic. A crucial feature of such a system is the easiness with which a proposal can be collectively accepted, which is measured by the "decisiveness index" of the corresponding game. We study here several functions related to the decisiveness of any simple game. The analysis, including the asymptotic behavior as the number n of players increases, is restricited to decisive symmetric gammes and their compositions, and it is assumed that all players have a common probability p to vote for the proposal. We show that, for n large enough, a small variation, either positive or negaive, in p when p=1/2 takes the decisiveness to quickly approach , respectively, 1 or 0. Moreover, we analyze the speed of the decisiveness convergence.
Reseach supported by Grant SGR 2009-01029 of the Catalonia Government (Generalitat de Catalunya) and Frants MTM 2006-06064 and MTM 2009-08037 of the Science and Innovation Spanish Ministry and the European Regional Development Fund.
2011-04-29T15:46:53ZCarreras Escobar, FranciscoFreixas Bosch, JosepPuente del Campo, María AlbinaBinary voting systems, usually represented by simple games, constitute a main DSS topic. A crucial feature of such a system is the easiness with which a proposal can be collectively accepted, which is measured by the "decisiveness index" of the corresponding game. We study here several functions related to the decisiveness of any simple game. The analysis, including the asymptotic behavior as the number n of players increases, is restricited to decisive symmetric gammes and their compositions, and it is assumed that all players have a common probability p to vote for the proposal. We show that, for n large enough, a small variation, either positive or negaive, in p when p=1/2 takes the decisiveness to quickly approach , respectively, 1 or 0. Moreover, we analyze the speed of the decisiveness convergence.