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http://hdl.handle.net/2117/1087
Wed, 01 Oct 2014 01:01:09 GMT
20141001T01:01:09Z
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Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya. Servei de Biblioteques i Documentació
no

Numerical bifurcation methods and their application to fluid dynamics: analysis beyond simulation
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/21331
Title: Numerical bifurcation methods and their application to fluid dynamics: analysis beyond simulation
Authors: Dijkstra, Hendrik; Wubs, Fred W.; Cliffe, Andrew K.; Doedel, Eusebius J.; Dragomirescu, Ioana Florica; Eckhardt, Bruno; Gelfgat, Alexander Yu; Hazel, Andrew L.; Lucarini, Valerio; Salinger, Andrew G.; Phipps, Erik T.; Sánchez Umbría, Juan; Schuttelaars, Henk M.; Tuckerman, Laurette S.; Thiele, Uwe
Abstract: We provide an overview of current techniques and typical applications of numerical bifurcation analysis in fluid dynamical problems. Many of these problems are characterized by highdimensional dynamical systems which undergo transitions as parameters are changed. The computation of the critical conditions associated with these transitions, popularly referred to as 'tipping points', is important for understanding the transition mechanisms. We describe the two basic classes of methods of numerical bifurcation analysis, which differ in the explicit or implicit use of the Jacobian matrix of the dynamical system. The numerical challenges involved in both methods are mentioned and possible solutions to current bottlenecks are given. To demonstrate that numerical bifurcation techniques are not restricted to relatively lowdimensional dynamical systems, we provide several examples of the application of the modern techniques to a diverse set of fluid mechanical problems.
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/21331
Dijkstra, Hendrik; Wubs, Fred W.; Cliffe, Andrew K.; Doedel, Eusebius J.; Dragomirescu, Ioana Florica; Eckhardt, Bruno; Gelfgat, Alexander Yu; Hazel, Andrew L.; Lucarini, Valerio; Salinger, Andrew G.; Phipps, Erik T.; Sánchez Umbría, Juan; Schuttelaars, Henk M.; Tuckerman, Laurette S.; Thiele, Uwe
no
Highdimensional dynamical systems, Numerical bifurcation analysis, Transitions in fluid flows
We provide an overview of current techniques and typical applications of numerical bifurcation analysis in fluid dynamical problems. Many of these problems are characterized by highdimensional dynamical systems which undergo transitions as parameters are changed. The computation of the critical conditions associated with these transitions, popularly referred to as 'tipping points', is important for understanding the transition mechanisms. We describe the two basic classes of methods of numerical bifurcation analysis, which differ in the explicit or implicit use of the Jacobian matrix of the dynamical system. The numerical challenges involved in both methods are mentioned and possible solutions to current bottlenecks are given. To demonstrate that numerical bifurcation techniques are not restricted to relatively lowdimensional dynamical systems, we provide several examples of the application of the modern techniques to a diverse set of fluid mechanical problems.

Threedimensional instabilities in a discretely heated annular flow: onset of spatiotemporal complexity via defect dynamics
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/24190
Title: Threedimensional instabilities in a discretely heated annular flow: onset of spatiotemporal complexity via defect dynamics
Authors: Marqués Truyol, Francisco; Lopez, Juan M
Abstract: The transition to threedimensional and unsteady flow in an annulus with a discrete heat source on the inner cylinder is studied numerically. For large applied heat flux through the heater (large Grashof number Gr), there is a strong wall plume originating at the heater that reaches the top and forms a large scale axisymmetric wavy structure along the top. For Gr approximate to 6 x 109, this wavy structure becomes unstable to threedimensional instabilities with high azimuthal wavenumbers m similar to 30, influenced by mode competition within an Eckhaus band of wavenumbers. Coexisting with some of these steady threedimensional states, solution branches with localized defects break parity and result in spatiotemporal dynamics. We have identified two such time dependent states. One is a limit cycle that while breaking spatial parity, retains spatiotemporal parity. The other branch corresponds to quasiperiodic states that have globally broken parity. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.
Tue, 30 Sep 2014 17:35:55 GMT
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/24190
20140930T17:35:55Z
Marqués Truyol, Francisco; Lopez, Juan M
no
TaylorCouette flow, Paritybreaking bifurcation, Unsteady naturalconvection, Benjaminfeir instability, Inhomogeneous systems, Rectangular cavity, Wave interactions, Rotating waves, Regime, Side
The transition to threedimensional and unsteady flow in an annulus with a discrete heat source on the inner cylinder is studied numerically. For large applied heat flux through the heater (large Grashof number Gr), there is a strong wall plume originating at the heater that reaches the top and forms a large scale axisymmetric wavy structure along the top. For Gr approximate to 6 x 109, this wavy structure becomes unstable to threedimensional instabilities with high azimuthal wavenumbers m similar to 30, influenced by mode competition within an Eckhaus band of wavenumbers. Coexisting with some of these steady threedimensional states, solution branches with localized defects break parity and result in spatiotemporal dynamics. We have identified two such time dependent states. One is a limit cycle that while breaking spatial parity, retains spatiotemporal parity. The other branch corresponds to quasiperiodic states that have globally broken parity. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

Evolution and CNO yields of Z = 105 stars and possible effects on carbonenhanced metalpoor production
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/24107
Title: Evolution and CNO yields of Z = 105 stars and possible effects on carbonenhanced metalpoor production
Authors: Gil Pons, Pilar; Doherty, Carolyn L.; Lau, Herbert B.; Campbell, Simon W; Suda, Takuma; Guilani, Shervin Mansouri; Gutierrez Cabello, Jorge Luis; Lattanzio, John C.
Abstract: Aims. Our main goals are to get a deeper insight into the evolution and final fates of intermediatemass, extremely metalpoor (EMP) stars. We also aim to investigate the C, N, and O yields of these stars.
Methods. Using the Monash University Stellar Evolution code MONSTAR we computed and analysed the evolution of stars of metallicity Z = 105 and masses between 4 and 9 M¿, from their main sequence until the late thermally pulsing (super) asymptotic giant branch, TP(S)AGB phase.
Results. Our model stars experience a strong C, N, and O envelope enrichment either due to the second dredgeup process, the dredgeout phenomenon, or the third dredgeup early during the TP(S)AGB phase. Their late evolution is therefore similar to that of higher metallicity objects. When using a standard prescription for the mass loss rates during the TP(S)AGB phase, the computed stars are able to lose most of their envelopes before their cores reach the Chandrasekhar mass (mCh), so our standard models do not predict the occurrence of SNI1/2 for Z = 105 stars. However, we find that the reduction of only one order of magnitude in the massloss rates, which are particularly uncertain at this metallicity, would prevent the complete ejection of the envelope, allowing the stars to either explode as an SNI1/2 or become an electroncapture SN. Our calculations stop due to an instability near the base of the convective envelope that hampers further convergence and leaves remnant envelope masses between 0.25 M¿ for our 4 M¿ model and 1.5 M¿ for our 9 M¿ model. We present two sets of C, N, and O yields derived from our full calculations and computed under two different assumptions, namely, that the instability causes a practically instant loss of the remnant envelope or that the stars recover and proceed with further thermal pulses.
Conclusions. Our results have implications for the early chemical evolution of the Universe and might provide another piece for the puzzle of the carbonenhanced EMP star problem.
Thu, 18 Sep 2014 17:16:10 GMT
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/24107
20140918T17:16:10Z
Gil Pons, Pilar; Doherty, Carolyn L.; Lau, Herbert B.; Campbell, Simon W; Suda, Takuma; Guilani, Shervin Mansouri; Gutierrez Cabello, Jorge Luis; Lattanzio, John C.
no
stars: AGB and postAGB / stars: abundances / stars: evolution
Aims. Our main goals are to get a deeper insight into the evolution and final fates of intermediatemass, extremely metalpoor (EMP) stars. We also aim to investigate the C, N, and O yields of these stars.
Methods. Using the Monash University Stellar Evolution code MONSTAR we computed and analysed the evolution of stars of metallicity Z = 105 and masses between 4 and 9 M¿, from their main sequence until the late thermally pulsing (super) asymptotic giant branch, TP(S)AGB phase.
Results. Our model stars experience a strong C, N, and O envelope enrichment either due to the second dredgeup process, the dredgeout phenomenon, or the third dredgeup early during the TP(S)AGB phase. Their late evolution is therefore similar to that of higher metallicity objects. When using a standard prescription for the mass loss rates during the TP(S)AGB phase, the computed stars are able to lose most of their envelopes before their cores reach the Chandrasekhar mass (mCh), so our standard models do not predict the occurrence of SNI1/2 for Z = 105 stars. However, we find that the reduction of only one order of magnitude in the massloss rates, which are particularly uncertain at this metallicity, would prevent the complete ejection of the envelope, allowing the stars to either explode as an SNI1/2 or become an electroncapture SN. Our calculations stop due to an instability near the base of the convective envelope that hampers further convergence and leaves remnant envelope masses between 0.25 M¿ for our 4 M¿ model and 1.5 M¿ for our 9 M¿ model. We present two sets of C, N, and O yields derived from our full calculations and computed under two different assumptions, namely, that the instability causes a practically instant loss of the remnant envelope or that the stars recover and proceed with further thermal pulses.
Conclusions. Our results have implications for the early chemical evolution of the Universe and might provide another piece for the puzzle of the carbonenhanced EMP star problem.

La rubinada de Santa Tecla a Tàrrega (23 de Setembre de 1874)
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/24102
Title: La rubinada de Santa Tecla a Tàrrega (23 de Setembre de 1874)
Authors: Barriendos Valve, Mariano; Tuset Mestre, Jordi; Mazón Bueso, Jordi; Pino González, David; RuizBellet, Josep Lluis; Balasch Solanes, Josep Carles
Abstract: A partir de la recopilación histórica de los datos documentales disponibles y aplicando una metodología multidisci
plinar con modelos de simulación hidráulica, hidrológica y meteorológica, se han reconstruido las características prin
cipales de la devastadora crecida hidrológica (o
rubinada
de Santa Tecla) que padeció la ciudad de Tàrrega en la
madrugada del 23 de septiembre de 1874, y se describe el contexto meteorológico que condicionó la tormenta. El
caudal punta fue excepcional, causando una de las mayores mortandades de la historia de Tàrrega. Las circunstan
cias actuales no han cambiado, lo que no permite pensar que una avenida similar no pueda volver a ocurrir.
The main characteristics of the Santa Tecla’s flash flood that took place in Tàrrega the 23rd of September of 1874 are
reconstructed in this paper. For this, we use historical data from available contemporary documents and apply a mul
tidisciplinary approach based on hydraulic, hydrological and meteorological simulation models. The meteorological
conditions that determined the storm are also described. The peak discharge was the overriding cause of one of the
major human tragedies in the history of Tàrrega. Since the circumstances have not changed, rather the opposite, such
a flood is likely to occur again
Thu, 18 Sep 2014 16:11:31 GMT
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/24102
20140918T16:11:31Z
Barriendos Valve, Mariano; Tuset Mestre, Jordi; Mazón Bueso, Jordi; Pino González, David; RuizBellet, Josep Lluis; Balasch Solanes, Josep Carles
no
Crescuda hidrològica, Riu Ondara, Reconstrucció multidisciplinària, Models numèrics
A partir de la recopilación histórica de los datos documentales disponibles y aplicando una metodología multidisci
plinar con modelos de simulación hidráulica, hidrológica y meteorológica, se han reconstruido las características prin
cipales de la devastadora crecida hidrológica (o
rubinada
de Santa Tecla) que padeció la ciudad de Tàrrega en la
madrugada del 23 de septiembre de 1874, y se describe el contexto meteorológico que condicionó la tormenta. El
caudal punta fue excepcional, causando una de las mayores mortandades de la historia de Tàrrega. Las circunstan
cias actuales no han cambiado, lo que no permite pensar que una avenida similar no pueda volver a ocurrir.
The main characteristics of the Santa Tecla’s flash flood that took place in Tàrrega the 23rd of September of 1874 are
reconstructed in this paper. For this, we use historical data from available contemporary documents and apply a mul
tidisciplinary approach based on hydraulic, hydrological and meteorological simulation models. The meteorological
conditions that determined the storm are also described. The peak discharge was the overriding cause of one of the
major human tragedies in the history of Tàrrega. Since the circumstances have not changed, rather the opposite, such
a flood is likely to occur again

Streamwiselocalized solutions at the onset of turbulence in pipe flow
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/24091
Title: Streamwiselocalized solutions at the onset of turbulence in pipe flow
Authors: Avila Cañellas, Marc; Mellibovsky Elstein, Fernando; Roland, N.; Hof, Björn
Abstract: Although the equations governing fluid flow are well known, there are no analytical expressions that describe the complexity of turbulent motion. A recent proposition is that in analogy to low dimensional chaotic systems, turbulence is organized around unstable solutions of the governing equations which provide the building blocks of the disordered dynamics. We report the discovery of periodic solutions which just like intermittent turbulence are spatially localized and show that turbulent transients arise from one such solution branch. 2013 American Physical Society.
Wed, 17 Sep 2014 16:53:27 GMT
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/24091
20140917T16:53:27Z
Avila Cañellas, Marc; Mellibovsky Elstein, Fernando; Roland, N.; Hof, Björn
no
Turbulence
Chaotic systems
Although the equations governing fluid flow are well known, there are no analytical expressions that describe the complexity of turbulent motion. A recent proposition is that in analogy to low dimensional chaotic systems, turbulence is organized around unstable solutions of the governing equations which provide the building blocks of the disordered dynamics. We report the discovery of periodic solutions which just like intermittent turbulence are spatially localized and show that turbulent transients arise from one such solution branch. 2013 American Physical Society.

Subcritical equilibria in TaylorCouette flow
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/23990
Title: Subcritical equilibria in TaylorCouette flow
Authors: Deguchi, Kengo; Meseguer Serrano, Álvaro; Mellibovsky Elstein, Fernando
Abstract: Nonlinear equilibrium states characterized by strongly localized vortex pairs are calculated in the linearly stable parameter region of counterrotating TaylorCouette flow. These subcritical states are rotating waves whose region of existence is consistent with the critical threshold for relaminarization observed in experiments. For sufficiently rapid outer cylinder rotation the solutions extend beyond the static inner cylinder case to corotation, thus exceeding, for the first time, the boundary defined by the inviscid Rayleigh's stability criterion.
Fri, 05 Sep 2014 15:22:03 GMT
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/23990
20140905T15:22:03Z
Deguchi, Kengo; Meseguer Serrano, Álvaro; Mellibovsky Elstein, Fernando
no
Localized vortex disturbance, External shear flows, Travelingwaves, Pipeflow, Turbulence, Transition, Evolution
Nonlinear equilibrium states characterized by strongly localized vortex pairs are calculated in the linearly stable parameter region of counterrotating TaylorCouette flow. These subcritical states are rotating waves whose region of existence is consistent with the critical threshold for relaminarization observed in experiments. For sufficiently rapid outer cylinder rotation the solutions extend beyond the static inner cylinder case to corotation, thus exceeding, for the first time, the boundary defined by the inviscid Rayleigh's stability criterion.

Role of the residual layer and largescale subsidence on the development and evolution of the convective boundary layer
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/23501
Title: Role of the residual layer and largescale subsidence on the development and evolution of the convective boundary layer
Authors: Blay Carreras, Estel; Pino González, David; Vilà Guerau de Arellano, Jordi; van de Boer, Anneke; de Coster, Olivier; Darbieu, Clara; Hartogensis, Oskar; Lohou, Fabienne; Lothon, Marie; Pietersen, Henk
Abstract: Observations, mixedlayer theory and the Dutch LargeEddy Simulation model (DALES) are used to analyze the dynamics of the boundary layer during an intensive operational period (1 July 2011) of the Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence campaign. Continuous measurements made by remote sensing and in situ instruments in combination with radio soundings, and measurements done by remotely piloted aircraft systems and two manned aircrafts probed the vertical structure and the temporal evolution of the boundary layer during the campaign. The initial vertical profiles of potential temperature, specific humidity and wind, and the temporal evolution of the surface heat and moisture fluxes prescribed in the models runs are inspired by some of these observations.; The research focuses on the role played by the residual layer during the morning transition and by the largescale subsidence on the evolution of the boundary layer. By using DALES, we show the importance of the dynamics of the boundary layer during the previous night in the development of the boundary layer at the morning. DALES numerical experiments including the residual layer are capable of modeling the observed sudden increase of the boundarylayer depth during the morning transition and the subsequent evolution of the boundary layer. These simulations show a large increase of the entrainment buoyancy flux when the residual layer is incorporated into the mixed layer. We also examine how the inclusion of the residual layer above a shallow convective boundary layer modifies the turbulent kinetic energy budget.; Largescale subsidence mainly acts when the boundary layer is fully developed, and, for the studied day, it is necessary to be considered to reproduce the afternoon observations.; Finally, we also investigate how carbon dioxide (CO2) mixing ratio stored the previous night in the residual layer plays a fundamental role in the evolution of the CO2 mixing ratio during the following day.
Mon, 14 Jul 2014 12:05:35 GMT
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/23501
20140714T12:05:35Z
Blay Carreras, Estel; Pino González, David; Vilà Guerau de Arellano, Jordi; van de Boer, Anneke; de Coster, Olivier; Darbieu, Clara; Hartogensis, Oskar; Lohou, Fabienne; Lothon, Marie; Pietersen, Henk
no
LARGEEDDYSIMULATION, MORNING TRANSITION, CARBONDIOXIDE, MIXEDLAYER, WATERVAPOR, ORDERJUMP, PART I, TURBULENCE, ENTRAINMENT, INVERSION
Observations, mixedlayer theory and the Dutch LargeEddy Simulation model (DALES) are used to analyze the dynamics of the boundary layer during an intensive operational period (1 July 2011) of the Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence campaign. Continuous measurements made by remote sensing and in situ instruments in combination with radio soundings, and measurements done by remotely piloted aircraft systems and two manned aircrafts probed the vertical structure and the temporal evolution of the boundary layer during the campaign. The initial vertical profiles of potential temperature, specific humidity and wind, and the temporal evolution of the surface heat and moisture fluxes prescribed in the models runs are inspired by some of these observations.; The research focuses on the role played by the residual layer during the morning transition and by the largescale subsidence on the evolution of the boundary layer. By using DALES, we show the importance of the dynamics of the boundary layer during the previous night in the development of the boundary layer at the morning. DALES numerical experiments including the residual layer are capable of modeling the observed sudden increase of the boundarylayer depth during the morning transition and the subsequent evolution of the boundary layer. These simulations show a large increase of the entrainment buoyancy flux when the residual layer is incorporated into the mixed layer. We also examine how the inclusion of the residual layer above a shallow convective boundary layer modifies the turbulent kinetic energy budget.; Largescale subsidence mainly acts when the boundary layer is fully developed, and, for the studied day, it is necessary to be considered to reproduce the afternoon observations.; Finally, we also investigate how carbon dioxide (CO2) mixing ratio stored the previous night in the residual layer plays a fundamental role in the evolution of the CO2 mixing ratio during the following day.

Effects of sea level rise on the formation and drowning of shorefaceconnected sand ridges, a model study
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/23397
Title: Effects of sea level rise on the formation and drowning of shorefaceconnected sand ridges, a model study
Authors: Nnafie, Abdel; Swart, Huib E. de; Calvete Manrique, Daniel; Garnier, Roland Charles
Abstract: Shorefaceconnected sand ridges occur on many stormdominated inner shelves. These rhythmic features have an alongshelf spacing of 210 km, a height of 112 m, they evolve on timescales of centuries and they migrate several meters per year. An idealized model is used to study the impact of sea level rise on the characteristics of the sand ridges during their initial and longterm evolution. Different scenarios (rates of sea level rise, geometry of inner shelf) are examined. Results show that with increasing sea level the height of sand ridges increases and their migration decreases until they eventually drown. This latter occurs when the nearbed wave orbital velocity drops below the critical velocity for erosion of sediment. In contrast, in the absence of sea level rise, the model simulates shorefaceconnected sand ridges with constant heights and migration rates. Model results furthermore indicate that sand ridges do not form if the rate of sea level rise is too high, or if the initial depth of the inner shelf is too small. A larger transverse bottom slope enhances growth and height of sand ridges and they drown quicker. When shoreface retreat due to sea level rise is considered, new ridges form in the landward part of the inner shelf, while ridges on the antecedent part of the shelf become less active and ultimately drown. Only if sea level rise is accounted for, merging of ridges is reduced such that multiple ridges occur in the end state, thereby yielding a better agreement with observations. The physical mechanisms responsible for these findings are also explained. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fri, 04 Jul 2014 07:11:37 GMT
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/23397
20140704T07:11:37Z
Nnafie, Abdel; Swart, Huib E. de; Calvete Manrique, Daniel; Garnier, Roland Charles
no
Sand ridges, Shoreface, Retreat, Sea level rise, Inner shelf, Morphodynamics, INNER SHELF, ATLANTIC COAST, NEWYORK, CONTINENTAL SHELVES, SEDIMENT TRANSPORT, GEOLOGIC FRAMEWORK, UNITEDSTATES, LONGISLAND, FIRE ISLAND, EVOLUTION
Shorefaceconnected sand ridges occur on many stormdominated inner shelves. These rhythmic features have an alongshelf spacing of 210 km, a height of 112 m, they evolve on timescales of centuries and they migrate several meters per year. An idealized model is used to study the impact of sea level rise on the characteristics of the sand ridges during their initial and longterm evolution. Different scenarios (rates of sea level rise, geometry of inner shelf) are examined. Results show that with increasing sea level the height of sand ridges increases and their migration decreases until they eventually drown. This latter occurs when the nearbed wave orbital velocity drops below the critical velocity for erosion of sediment. In contrast, in the absence of sea level rise, the model simulates shorefaceconnected sand ridges with constant heights and migration rates. Model results furthermore indicate that sand ridges do not form if the rate of sea level rise is too high, or if the initial depth of the inner shelf is too small. A larger transverse bottom slope enhances growth and height of sand ridges and they drown quicker. When shoreface retreat due to sea level rise is considered, new ridges form in the landward part of the inner shelf, while ridges on the antecedent part of the shelf become less active and ultimately drown. Only if sea level rise is accounted for, merging of ridges is reduced such that multiple ridges occur in the end state, thereby yielding a better agreement with observations. The physical mechanisms responsible for these findings are also explained. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Application of multifractal analysis to the study of SAR features and oil spills on the ocean surface
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/23257
Title: Application of multifractal analysis to the study of SAR features and oil spills on the ocean surface
Authors: Tarquis Alfonso, Ana Maria; Platonov, A.; Matulka, Anna Magdalena; Grau, J.; Sekula, Emil; Diez, M.; Redondo Apraiz, José Manuel
Abstract: The use of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) to investigate the ocean surface provides a wealth of useful information that is very seldom used to its full potential. Here we will discuss the application of multifractal techniques to detect oil spills and the dynamic state of the sea regarding turbulent diffusion. We present different techniques in order to relate the shape of the multifractal spectral functions and the maximum fractal dimension to the behaviour of the ocean surface. We compare eddy and sheared dominated flows with convective driven flows and discuss the different features and observation methods. We also compare the scaling of different oil spills detected by means of SAR images. Recent spills and weathered ones are selected and compared to investigate their behaviour in different spatial and temporal ranges. We calculate the partition function based on the grey intensity value of each SAR pixel deriving several types of multifractal spectra as a function of spill residence time estimated for each image. Image manipulations are seen to reduce the speckle noise and thus distinguish much better the texture of the oil spill images. The results are used to discuss how eddy diffusivity may be estimated and used in a description of the ocean surface using a simple turbulence kinematic simulation model to predict the shape of oil spills. Differences in the multifractal spectrum among SAR images may detect the slicks due to plankton and also provide information on the age of the oil spills, on the Lagrangian turbulent structure and on ocean surface diffusivity.
Wed, 18 Jun 2014 10:49:17 GMT
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/23257
20140618T10:49:17Z
Tarquis Alfonso, Ana Maria; Platonov, A.; Matulka, Anna Magdalena; Grau, J.; Sekula, Emil; Diez, M.; Redondo Apraiz, José Manuel
no
LOCALSTRUCTURE, COASTAL WATERS, TURBULENCE, DIFFUSION, IMAGES, FLUID, DISPERSION, DIMENSION, PATTERNS, FLOWS
The use of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) to investigate the ocean surface provides a wealth of useful information that is very seldom used to its full potential. Here we will discuss the application of multifractal techniques to detect oil spills and the dynamic state of the sea regarding turbulent diffusion. We present different techniques in order to relate the shape of the multifractal spectral functions and the maximum fractal dimension to the behaviour of the ocean surface. We compare eddy and sheared dominated flows with convective driven flows and discuss the different features and observation methods. We also compare the scaling of different oil spills detected by means of SAR images. Recent spills and weathered ones are selected and compared to investigate their behaviour in different spatial and temporal ranges. We calculate the partition function based on the grey intensity value of each SAR pixel deriving several types of multifractal spectra as a function of spill residence time estimated for each image. Image manipulations are seen to reduce the speckle noise and thus distinguish much better the texture of the oil spill images. The results are used to discuss how eddy diffusivity may be estimated and used in a description of the ocean surface using a simple turbulence kinematic simulation model to predict the shape of oil spills. Differences in the multifractal spectrum among SAR images may detect the slicks due to plankton and also provide information on the age of the oil spills, on the Lagrangian turbulent structure and on ocean surface diffusivity.

Modeling the response of shorefaceconnected sand ridges to sand extraction on an inner shelf
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/23249
Title: Modeling the response of shorefaceconnected sand ridges to sand extraction on an inner shelf
Authors: Nnafie, abdel; Swart, Huib E. de; Calvete Manrique, Daniel; Garnier, Roland Charles
Abstract: Shorefaceconnected sand ridges are rhythmic bedforms that occur on many stormdominated inner shelves. The ridges span several kilometers, are a few meters high, and they evolve on a timescale of centuries. A processbased model is used to gain a fundamental insight into the response of these ridges to extraction of sand. Different scenarios of sand extraction (depth, location, and geometry of the extraction area; multiple sand extractions) are imposed. For each scenario, the response timescale as well as the characteristics of the new equilibrium state are determined. Results show that ridges partially restore after extraction, i.e., the disturbed bathymetry recovers on decadal timescales. However, in the end, the ridge original sand volume is not recovered. Initially, most sand that accomplishes the infill of the pit originates from the area upstream of the extraction, as well as from the areas surrounding the pit. The contribution of the latter strongly decreases in the subsequent time period. Depending on the location of the pit, additional sand sources contribute: First, if the pit is located close to the downstream trough, the pit gains sand by reduction of sand transport from the ridge to this trough. Second, if the pit is located close to the adjacent outer shelf, the ridge recovery is stronger due to an import of sand from that area. Furthermore, pits that are located close to the nearshore zone have a weak recovery, deeper pits have longer recovery timescales, wide and shallow pits recover most sand, while multiple sand pits slow down the recovery process.
Tue, 17 Jun 2014 13:41:00 GMT
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/23249
20140617T13:41:00Z
Nnafie, abdel; Swart, Huib E. de; Calvete Manrique, Daniel; Garnier, Roland Charles
no
Sand ridges, Inner shelf, Sand extraction, Stormdriven flow, Morphodynamics, Pit infill, Recovery, CENTRAL DUTCH COAST, SEDIMENT TRANSPORT, LONGISLAND, FLOW, EVOLUTION, BEHAVIOR, MAINTENANCE, MECHANISMS, WAVES, FIELD
Shorefaceconnected sand ridges are rhythmic bedforms that occur on many stormdominated inner shelves. The ridges span several kilometers, are a few meters high, and they evolve on a timescale of centuries. A processbased model is used to gain a fundamental insight into the response of these ridges to extraction of sand. Different scenarios of sand extraction (depth, location, and geometry of the extraction area; multiple sand extractions) are imposed. For each scenario, the response timescale as well as the characteristics of the new equilibrium state are determined. Results show that ridges partially restore after extraction, i.e., the disturbed bathymetry recovers on decadal timescales. However, in the end, the ridge original sand volume is not recovered. Initially, most sand that accomplishes the infill of the pit originates from the area upstream of the extraction, as well as from the areas surrounding the pit. The contribution of the latter strongly decreases in the subsequent time period. Depending on the location of the pit, additional sand sources contribute: First, if the pit is located close to the downstream trough, the pit gains sand by reduction of sand transport from the ridge to this trough. Second, if the pit is located close to the adjacent outer shelf, the ridge recovery is stronger due to an import of sand from that area. Furthermore, pits that are located close to the nearshore zone have a weak recovery, deeper pits have longer recovery timescales, wide and shallow pits recover most sand, while multiple sand pits slow down the recovery process.

Singularity free gravitational collapse in an effective dynamical quantum spacetime
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/23149
Title: Singularity free gravitational collapse in an effective dynamical quantum spacetime
Authors: Torres Herrera, Ramon; Fayos Vallés, Francisco
Abstract: We model the gravitational collapse of heavy massive shells including its main quantum corrections. Among these corrections, quantum improvements coming from Quantum Einstein Gravity are taken into account, which provides us with an effective quantum spacetime. Likewise, we consider dynamical Hawking radiation by modeling its backreaction once the horizons have been generated. Our results point towards a picture of gravitational collapse in which the collapsing shell reaches a minimum nonzero radius (whose value depends on the shell initial conditions) with its mass only slightly reduced. Then, there is always a rebound after which most (or all) of the mass evaporates in the form of Hawking radiation. Since the mass never concentrates in a single point, no singularity appears.
Wed, 04 Jun 2014 07:25:43 GMT
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/23149
20140604T07:25:43Z
Torres Herrera, Ramon; Fayos Vallés, Francisco
no
Gravitational collapse, Black holes, Hawking radiation, Quantum gravity
We model the gravitational collapse of heavy massive shells including its main quantum corrections. Among these corrections, quantum improvements coming from Quantum Einstein Gravity are taken into account, which provides us with an effective quantum spacetime. Likewise, we consider dynamical Hawking radiation by modeling its backreaction once the horizons have been generated. Our results point towards a picture of gravitational collapse in which the collapsing shell reaches a minimum nonzero radius (whose value depends on the shell initial conditions) with its mass only slightly reduced. Then, there is always a rebound after which most (or all) of the mass evaporates in the form of Hawking radiation. Since the mass never concentrates in a single point, no singularity appears.

Numerical simulations of thermal convection in rotating spherical shells under laboratory conditions
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/23064
Title: Numerical simulations of thermal convection in rotating spherical shells under laboratory conditions
Authors: García González, Fernando; Sánchez Umbría, Juan; Net Marcé, Marta
Abstract: An exhaustive study, based on numerical threedimensional simulations, of the Boussinesq thermal convection of a fluid confined in a rotating spherical shell is presented. A moderately low Prandtl number fluid (ro = 0.1) bounded by differentiallyheated solid spherical shells is mainly considered. Asymptotic power laws for the mean physical properties of the flows are obtained in the limit of low Rossby number and compared with laboratory experiments and with previous numerical results computed by taking either stressfree boundary conditions or quasigeostrophic restrictions, and with geodynamo models. Finally, using parameters as close as possible to those of the Earth's outer core, some estimations of the characteristic time and length scales of convection are given. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Tue, 27 May 2014 17:22:19 GMT
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/23064
20140527T17:22:19Z
García González, Fernando; Sánchez Umbría, Juan; Net Marcé, Marta
no
Earth's outer core, High Rayleigh number, Rotating thermal convection, Turbulence
An exhaustive study, based on numerical threedimensional simulations, of the Boussinesq thermal convection of a fluid confined in a rotating spherical shell is presented. A moderately low Prandtl number fluid (ro = 0.1) bounded by differentiallyheated solid spherical shells is mainly considered. Asymptotic power laws for the mean physical properties of the flows are obtained in the limit of low Rossby number and compared with laboratory experiments and with previous numerical results computed by taking either stressfree boundary conditions or quasigeostrophic restrictions, and with geodynamo models. Finally, using parameters as close as possible to those of the Earth's outer core, some estimations of the characteristic time and length scales of convection are given. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

How kilometric sandy shoreline undulations correlate with wave and morphology characteristics: preliminary analysis on the Atlantic coast of Africa
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/22793
Title: How kilometric sandy shoreline undulations correlate with wave and morphology characteristics: preliminary analysis on the Atlantic coast of Africa
Authors: Idier, Deborah; Falqués Serra, Albert
Abstract: Sandy coasts are characterized by a number of rhythmic patterns like, amongst others, shoreline undulations or sandwaves at a kilometric scale. One hypothesis for their formation is that high angle waves (large incidence angle with respect to shore normal) could induce an instability of the shoreline (Ashton et al., 2001). More recently, a scaling for their wavelength has also been proposed (van den Berg et al., 2014). The existing studies rely mainly on modelling but quantitative field tests are lacking. We aim at investigating how both the formation hypothesis of these shoreline undulations and the theoretical scaling do fit with nature at a global scale. The first step, which is the goal of this paper, is to set up the methodology by analyzing the Atlantic African coast as test site. First, based on global databases, shoreline wavelength LS, wave characteristics (obliquity ¿W and wavelength ¿W) and mean shoreface slope ß are determined. Then the wave obliquity is confronted with the presence of shoreline undulations. Finally the values of the ratio ßLS / ¿W are estimated and discussed in comparison with the estimate of van den Berg et al. (2014). It is found that the correlation between shoreline sandwave occurrence and wave obliquity is very good, allowing the identification of 5 new potential unstable shoreline stretches, whereas the results on the scaling are not conclusive and deserve further investigations.
Wed, 30 Apr 2014 15:18:33 GMT
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/22793
20140430T15:18:33Z
Idier, Deborah; Falqués Serra, Albert
no
Shoreline undulations
Atlantic coast of Africa
Sandy coasts are characterized by a number of rhythmic patterns like, amongst others, shoreline undulations or sandwaves at a kilometric scale. One hypothesis for their formation is that high angle waves (large incidence angle with respect to shore normal) could induce an instability of the shoreline (Ashton et al., 2001). More recently, a scaling for their wavelength has also been proposed (van den Berg et al., 2014). The existing studies rely mainly on modelling but quantitative field tests are lacking. We aim at investigating how both the formation hypothesis of these shoreline undulations and the theoretical scaling do fit with nature at a global scale. The first step, which is the goal of this paper, is to set up the methodology by analyzing the Atlantic African coast as test site. First, based on global databases, shoreline wavelength LS, wave characteristics (obliquity ¿W and wavelength ¿W) and mean shoreface slope ß are determined. Then the wave obliquity is confronted with the presence of shoreline undulations. Finally the values of the ratio ßLS / ¿W are estimated and discussed in comparison with the estimate of van den Berg et al. (2014). It is found that the correlation between shoreline sandwave occurrence and wave obliquity is very good, allowing the identification of 5 new potential unstable shoreline stretches, whereas the results on the scaling are not conclusive and deserve further investigations.

On the entrainment coefficient in a forced plume: quantitative effects of source parameter
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/22461
Title: On the entrainment coefficient in a forced plume: quantitative effects of source parameter
Authors: Matulka, Anna Magdalena; Lopez GonzalezNieto, Pilar; Redondo Apraiz, José Manuel; Tarquis Alfonso, Ana Maria
Abstract: The behavior of a forced plume is mainly controlled by the source buoyancy and momentum fluxes and the efficiency of turbulent mixing between the plume and the ambient fluid (stratified or not). The interaction between the plume and the ambient fluid controls the plume dynamics and is usually represented by the entrainment coefficient aE. Commonly used onedimensional models incorporating a constant entrainment coefficient are fundamental and very useful for predictions in geophysical flows and industrial situations. Nevertheless, if the basic geometry of the flow changes, or the type of source or the environmental fluid conditions (e.g., level of turbulence, shear, ambient stratification, presence of internal waves), new models allowing for variable entrainment are necessary. The presented paper is an experimental study based on a set of turbulent plume experiments in a calm unstratified ambient fluid under different source conditions (represented by different buoyancy and momentum fluxes). The main result is that the entrainment coefficient is not a constant and clearly varies in time within the same plume independently of the buoyancy and the source position. This paper also analyzes the influence of the source conditions on the mentioned time evolution. The measured entrainment coefficient aE has considerable variability. It ranges between 0.26 and 0.9 for variable Atwood number experiments and between 0.16 and 0.55 for variable source position experiments. As is observed, values are greater than the traditional standard value of Morton et al. (1956) for plumes and jets, which is about 0.13
Mon, 31 Mar 2014 16:27:40 GMT
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/22461
20140331T16:27:40Z
Matulka, Anna Magdalena; Lopez GonzalezNieto, Pilar; Redondo Apraiz, José Manuel; Tarquis Alfonso, Ana Maria
no
The behavior of a forced plume is mainly controlled by the source buoyancy and momentum fluxes and the efficiency of turbulent mixing between the plume and the ambient fluid (stratified or not). The interaction between the plume and the ambient fluid controls the plume dynamics and is usually represented by the entrainment coefficient aE. Commonly used onedimensional models incorporating a constant entrainment coefficient are fundamental and very useful for predictions in geophysical flows and industrial situations. Nevertheless, if the basic geometry of the flow changes, or the type of source or the environmental fluid conditions (e.g., level of turbulence, shear, ambient stratification, presence of internal waves), new models allowing for variable entrainment are necessary. The presented paper is an experimental study based on a set of turbulent plume experiments in a calm unstratified ambient fluid under different source conditions (represented by different buoyancy and momentum fluxes). The main result is that the entrainment coefficient is not a constant and clearly varies in time within the same plume independently of the buoyancy and the source position. This paper also analyzes the influence of the source conditions on the mentioned time evolution. The measured entrainment coefficient aE has considerable variability. It ranges between 0.26 and 0.9 for variable Atwood number experiments and between 0.16 and 0.55 for variable source position experiments. As is observed, values are greater than the traditional standard value of Morton et al. (1956) for plumes and jets, which is about 0.13

Transition of the stellar initial mass function explored using binary population synthesis
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/22447
Title: Transition of the stellar initial mass function explored using binary population synthesis
Authors: Suda, Takuma; Komiya, Yutaka; Yamada, Shimako; Katsuta, Yutaka; Aoki, Wako; Gil Pons, Pilar; Doherty, Carolyn L.; Campbell, Simon W.; Wood, Peter R.; Fujimoto, Masayuki Y.
Abstract: The stellar initial mass function (IMF) plays a crucial role in determining the number of surviving stars in galaxies, the chemical composition of the interstellar medium, and the distribution of light in galaxies. A key unsolved question is whether the IMF is universal in time and space. Here we use stateoftheart results of stellar evolution to show that the IMF of our Galaxy made a transition from an IMF dominated by massive stars to the presentday IMF at an early phase of the Galaxy formation. Updated results from stellar evolution in a wide range of metallicities have been implemented in a binary population synthesis code, and compared with the observations of carbonenhanced metalpoor (CEMP) stars in our Galaxy. We find that applying the presentday IMF to Galactic halo stars causes serious contradictions with four observable quantities connected with the evolution of AGB stars. Furthermore, a comparison between our calculations and the observations of CEMP stars may help us to constrain the transition metallicity for the IMF which we tentatively set at [Fe/H] = 2. A novelty of the current study is the inclusion of mass loss suppression in intermediatemass AGB stars at lowmetallicity. This significantly reduces the overproduction of nitrogenenhanced stars that was a major problem in using the highmass star dominated IMF in previous studies. Our results also demonstrate that the use of the present day IMF for all time in chemical evolution models results in the overproduction of Type I.5 supernovae. More data on stellar abundances will help to understand how the IMF has changed and what caused such a transition.
Mon, 31 Mar 2014 11:59:46 GMT
http://hdl.handle.net/2117/22447
20140331T11:59:46Z
Suda, Takuma; Komiya, Yutaka; Yamada, Shimako; Katsuta, Yutaka; Aoki, Wako; Gil Pons, Pilar; Doherty, Carolyn L.; Campbell, Simon W.; Wood, Peter R.; Fujimoto, Masayuki Y.
no
The stellar initial mass function (IMF) plays a crucial role in determining the number of surviving stars in galaxies, the chemical composition of the interstellar medium, and the distribution of light in galaxies. A key unsolved question is whether the IMF is universal in time and space. Here we use stateoftheart results of stellar evolution to show that the IMF of our Galaxy made a transition from an IMF dominated by massive stars to the presentday IMF at an early phase of the Galaxy formation. Updated results from stellar evolution in a wide range of metallicities have been implemented in a binary population synthesis code, and compared with the observations of carbonenhanced metalpoor (CEMP) stars in our Galaxy. We find that applying the presentday IMF to Galactic halo stars causes serious contradictions with four observable quantities connected with the evolution of AGB stars. Furthermore, a comparison between our calculations and the observations of CEMP stars may help us to constrain the transition metallicity for the IMF which we tentatively set at [Fe/H] = 2. A novelty of the current study is the inclusion of mass loss suppression in intermediatemass AGB stars at lowmetallicity. This significantly reduces the overproduction of nitrogenenhanced stars that was a major problem in using the highmass star dominated IMF in previous studies. Our results also demonstrate that the use of the present day IMF for all time in chemical evolution models results in the overproduction of Type I.5 supernovae. More data on stellar abundances will help to understand how the IMF has changed and what caused such a transition.